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Jae Hyo Park, Seung-Yeob Yang, You-Nam Chung, Jeong Eun Kim, Seung-Ki Kim, Dae Hee Han and Byung-Kyu Cho

✓The authors describe a modified technique of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) with bifrontal encephalogaleoperiosteal synangiosis (EGPS) and present the preliminary results of the procedure. Between January 2004 and June 2005 the authors performed modified EDAS with bifrontal EGPS in 17 patients with moyamoya disease. Surgical results were evaluated in terms of clinical outcomes, changes visible on neuroimages, extent of revascularization noted on angiograms, and hemodynamic changes demonstrated on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 21 months (mean 11.5 months). The overall clinical outcomes were excellent or good in 15 patients (88.2%) and poor in two (11.8%). The overall morbidity rate was 5.9% (one of 17 patients). Based on changes in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories after surgery, as shown on SPECT scans following administration of acetazolamide, 14 patients (82.4%) exhibited an improved vascular reserve capacity in both the ACA and MCA territories. It is the authors' opinion that wide covering of the cortex is necessary for sufficient revascularization. In the present study they demonstrate that modified EDAS with bifrontal EGPS is a safe and efficient surgical approach that covers not only the MCA territory but also the ACA territory.

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Jae Hyo Park, Park In Sung, Dae Hee Han, Seong Hyun Kim, Chang Wan Oh, Jeong-Eun Kim, Hyun Jib Kim, Moon Hee Han and O-Ki Kwon

Object

Because of its thin wall, an aneurysm arising from the posterior wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the so-called blood blister–like aneurysm (BBA), is difficult to manage surgically and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The authors treated these aneurysms endovascularly. In this paper, they present angiographic and clinical results obtained in patients with ICA BBAs treated endovascularly.

Methods

In seven patients with ICA BBAs who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, a total number of 12 endovascular treatments were performed, including seven endosaccular coil embolizations (four conventional, two stent-assisted and one balloon-assisted procedure) in four patients and five endovascular ICA trapping procedures in five patients. Repeated endovascular treatments were undertaken in four patients. In two patients, the endovascular treatment was performed after failure of surgical treatment (one case of rebleeding after clip placement and one aneurysmal regrowth after wrapping). A balloon occlusion test (BOT) was performed in all patients prior to ICA trapping.

All four patients treated by endosaccular coil embolization showed aneurysmal regrowth. Neither stents nor balloons helpfully prevented aneurysmal regrowth. Of these four patients, two experienced rebleeding. These two patients remained vegetative at the last follow-up examination. After the BOT, ICA trapping was performed with coils and balloons without complication in five patients; excellent outcomes were achieved in all cases but one in which the patient had been in poor neurological condition due to rebleeding after surgical clip therapy.

Conclusions

All ICA BBAs that were treated by endosaccular coil embolization exhibited regrowth of the aneurysm. Some of the lesions rebled. The majority of patients who underwent ICA trapping experienced excellent outcomes. Based on the authors' experiences, they suggest that ICA trapping including the lesion segment should be considered as a first option for definitive treatment if a BOT reveals satisfactory results. Regarding trapping methods, endovascular treatment may be preferred because of its convenience and safety.

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Jae Hyo Park, Jeong Eun Kim, Seung Hun Sheen, Cheol Kyu Jung, Bae Ju Kwon, O-Ki Kwon, Chang Wan Oh, Moon Hee Han and Dae Hee Han

Object

Experience with intraarterial abciximab for the treatment of thromboembolism during endovascular coil embolization is limited. The authors report the outcome of intraarterial abciximab use, with an emphasis on fatal hemorrhagic complications.

Methods

Between March 2003 and May 2006, the authors treated 606 aneurysms by using endovascular coil embolization, and in 32 (5.3%) of these aneurysms (31 patients) an intraarterial thrombus developed. Sixteen of these aneurysms were ruptured and the other 16 were unruptured. Arterial thrombi were totally occlusive in 3 and partially occlusive in the remaining 29 cases. Intraarterial abciximab was administered at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml as a bolus of 4–15 mg over a period of 15–30 minutes.

Results

Complete thrombolysis was achieved in 17 (53%) and partial thrombolysis in 15 (47%) of 32 lesions. Twenty-eight patients (90.3%) were asymptomatic after abciximab thrombolysis, but 3 had postprocedural rebleeding that occurred after abciximab treatment; all of these patients had recently experienced an aneurysm rupture. Of these patients, 1 displayed severe thrombocytopenia and the other 2 showed a > 25% reduction in platelet count after abciximab treatment.

Conclusions

Intraarterial abciximab is effective for the treatment of thromboembolic complications that occur during intracranial aneurysm coil insertion. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to prevent potentially fatal complications such as thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage, especially in patients with a ruptured aneurysm.

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Hyun-Seung Kang, Bae Ju Kwon, O-Ki Kwon, Cheolkyu Jung, Jeong Eun Kim, Chang Wan Oh and Moon Hee Han

Object

Anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms are difficult to treat, and the clinical outcome of patients is occasionally compromised by ischemic complications after clipping operations. The purpose of this study was to document the outcome and follow-up results of endovascular coil embolization in patients with AChA aneurysms.

Methods

Between July 1999 and March 2008, 88 patients with 90 AChA aneurysms (31 ruptured and 59 unruptured aneurysms) were treated with endovascular coil embolization in 91 sessions. There were 87 small aneurysms (< 10 mm) and 3 large aneurysms, with a mean aneurysm volume of 60.9 ± 83.3 mm3. Preprocedural oculomotor nerve palsy associated with AChA aneurysms was noted in 8 patients. Efficacy and safety were evaluated based on the degree of initial occlusion, procedure-related complications, patient outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale score, and follow-up results.

Results

The degree of angiographic occlusion of the aneurysms was complete for 15 aneurysms (17%), near complete for 69 aneurysms (77%) and partial for 6 aneurysms (7%). There were 4 (4.4%) symptomatic procedure-related complications (3 thromboembolic events and 1 procedural hemorrhage). The procedural hemorrhage resulted in death; however, the thromboembolic events only caused transient deficits. A favorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5 or 4) was achieved in 90% (79 of 88) of the patients at the time of discharge. No patient showed signs of bleeding or rebleeding during the follow-up period (mean 25 months). Major aneurysm recanalization occurred in 2 cases. The AChA aneurysm–associated oculomotor nerve palsy tended to become aggravated transiently after coil embolization and then completely recovered over the course of 2–9 months.

Conclusions

Coil embolization is a safe and effective treatment modality in cases of AChA aneurysms. Coil embolization enables procedural recognition of arterial compromise and immediate reestablishment of flow, thus contributing to a favorable outcome.

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Seong-Cheol Park, Seung-Ki Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, Hyun Jib Kim, Jeong Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, In-One Kim and Kyu-Chang Wang

Object

Sinus pericranii (SP) is a rare venous varix in an extracranial location connected to the intracranial venous system. The aim of this retrospective study was to report on 16 pediatric cases of SP with consideration of the preoperative evaluation of surgical risk.

Methods

The study population consisted of 10 patients who had undergone surgery for SP and 6 patients with concomitant craniosynostosis and SP. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 3.7 years. To identify characteristics of SP with high operative risk, 8 cases in this report and 11 previously reported cases of SP with sufficient information were categorized on the basis of the number and size of SP, the number and size of transcranial channels, the venous drainage type, and the amount of blood loss. Hemorrhage amounts were classified into 3 grades based on the description of intraoperative blood loss.

Results

Sinus pericranii not associated with craniosynostosis were resected without any postoperative morbidity. Sinus pericranii associated with craniosynostosis were preserved. After craniofacial reconstruction, 2 cases of SP with craniosynostosis regressed, completely in one patient and partially in another. These 2 patients with SP were confirmed to have compromised intracranial sinus before craniofacial reconstruction. Among a total of 19 patients, multiplicity or size (> 6 cm) of SP (p = 0.036) and multiplicity (> 3) or size (> 3 mm) of transcranial channels (p = 0.004) was associated with more severe hemorrhage grade. Sinus pericranii with peripheral venous drainage (drainer type) was not associated with hemorrhage grade after classification into 3 grades (p = 0.192). However, all 3 cases of SP with massive Grade 3 hemorrhage were the drainer type. Hemorrhage grade was correlated with the number of risk factors for SP (r = 0.793, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Three risk factors of SP and the presence of compromised intracranial sinus are markers for highrisk SP. “Squeezed-out sinus syndrome” is suggested as a concept for SP associated with compromised intracranial sinus, mainly caused by craniosynostosis. Sinus pericranii in squeezed-out sinus syndrome probably serves as a crucial alternative to venous drainage of the brain with intracranial venous compromise. Conservative treatment for such patients with SP is recommended.

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Jung-Hee Lee, Ki-Tack Kim, Kyung-Soo Suk, Sang-Hun Lee, Bi-O Jeong, Hyun-Seok Oh, Chul-Hee Lee and Myung-Seo Kim

Intraspinal cystic lesions with different pathogeneses have been reported to cause neurological deficits; however, no one has focused on the intraspinal extradural cysts that develop after osteoporotic compression fracture. The reported case features a 66-year-old woman presenting with progressive neurological deficit, back pain, and no history of additional trauma after undergoing conservative treatment for an osteoporotic fracture of L-1. The authors present serial radiographs and MR images demonstrating an epidural cyst successfully treated via a single posterior approach. This appears to be the first such case reported in the literature.

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Won-Sang Cho, Ki-Jeong Kim, O-Ki Kwon, Chi Heon Kim, Jiha Kim, Moon Hee Han and Chun Kee Chung

Object

Spinal vascular diseases, such as spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), and spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), are very rare. The authors analyzed the features and treatment outcomes of these conditions.

Methods

Data from 64 patients were retrospectively reviewed. There were 33 spinal DAVFs (1 patient had 2 lesions), 20 perimedullary AVFs, and 12 spinal AVMs. Clinical features, radiological findings, treatment results, and clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the diseases, subtypes, and treatment modalities. The median duration of follow-up was 20, 42, and 56 months for spinal DAVFs, perimedullary AVFs, and spinal AVMs, respectively.

Results

Spinal DAVFs showed faster progression of symptoms (median 5, 12, and 36 months for spinal DAVFs, perimedullary AVFs, and spinal AVMs, respectively) and worse neurological status at diagnosis (poor neurological status in 56%, 65%, and 33%, respectively). On MRI, signal voids were demonstrated in all except 1 spinal DAVF. At the last follow-up, 94% of spinal DAVFs, 68% of perimedullary AVFs, and 50% of spinal AVMs were completely obliterated. Favorable clinical outcomes were achieved in 91%, 95%, and 58%, respectively. In detail, the majority (78%) of spinal DAVFs were embolized, resulting in complete obliteration in 92% and favorable clinical outcomes in 92%. Most Type IVa and IVb perimedullary AVFs were surgically treated (71% and 88%), with complete obliterations of 86% and 71%, and favorable clinical outcomes in 100% and 86%, respectively. All Type IVc lesions were embolized with a low cure rate of 40%; however, clinical outcomes were satisfactory. Spinal AVMs were generally embolized (67%), and only glomus-type lesions attained a satisfactory cure rate (80%) and clinical outcome (100%).

Conclusions

Embolization produced satisfactory outcomes in spinal DAVFs and glomus-type spinal AVMs. Surgery is advantageous in Type IVa and IVb perimedullary AVFs. Palliative embolization can be effective in Type IVc perimedullary AVFs and juvenile spinal AVMs.

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Hyun-Seung Kang, Youn-Joo Moon, Young-Yim Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Ae Kyung Park, Kyu-Chang Wang, Jeong Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee and Seung-Ki Kim

Object

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting bilateral internal carotid termini. Smooth-muscle cells are one of the major cell types involved in this disease process. The characteristics of circulating smooth-muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) in MMD are poorly understood. The authors purified SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD and sought to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SPCs from these patients.

Methods

The authors cultured and isolated SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD (n = 25) and healthy control volunteers (n = 22). After confirmation of the cellular phenotype, RNA was extracted from the cells and DEGs were identified using a commercially available gene chip. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the putative pathogenetic DEGs.

Results

The SPC-type outgrowth cells in patients with MMD invariably showed a hill-and-valley appearance under microscopic examination, and demonstrated high α–smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin expression (96.5% ± 2.1%, 42.8% ± 18.6%, and 87.1% ± 8.2%, respectively), and minimal CD31 expression (less than 1%) on fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. The SPCs in the MMD group tended to make more irregularly arranged and thickened tubules on the tube formation assay. In the SPCs from patients with MMD, 286 genes (124 upregulated and 162 downregulated) were differentially expressed; they were related to cell adhesion, cell migration, immune response, and vascular development.

Conclusions

With adequate culture conditions, SPCs could be established from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD. These cells showed specific DEGs compared with healthy control volunteers. This study provides a novel experimental cell model for further research of MMD.

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Chang-Hyun Lee, Jaebong Lee, James D. Kang, Seung-Jae Hyun, Ki-Jeong Kim, Tae-Ahn Jahng and Hyun-Jib Kim

OBJECT

Posterior cervical surgery, expansive laminoplasty (EL) or laminectomy followed by fusion (LF), is usually performed in patients with multilevel (≥ 3) cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the superiority of either of these techniques is still open to debate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and postoperative kyphosis in patients undergoing EL versus LF by performing a meta-analysis.

METHODS

Included in the meta-analysis were all studies of EL versus LF in adults with multilevel CSM in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. A random-effects model was applied to pool data using the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, such as the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) grade, the cervical curvature index (CCI), and the visual analog scale (VAS) score for neck pain.

RESULTS

Seven studies comprising 302 and 290 patients treated with EL and LF, respectively, were included in the final analyses. Both treatment groups showed slight cervical lordosis and moderate neck pain in the baseline state. Both groups were similarly improved in JOA grade (MD 0.09, 95% CI −0.37 to 0.54, p = 0.07) and neck pain VAS score (MD −0.33, 95% CI −1.50 to 0.84, p = 0.58). Both groups evenly lost cervical lordosis. In the LF group lordosis seemed to be preserved in long-term follow-up studies, although the difference between the 2 treatment groups was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS

Both EL and LF lead to clinical improvement and loss of lordosis evenly. There is no evidence to support EL over LF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Any superiority between EL and LF remains in question, although the LF group shows favorable long-term results.

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Chang-Hyun Lee, Tae-Ahn Jahng, Seung-Jae Hyun, Chi Heon Kim, Sung-Bae Park, Ki-Jeong Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Hyun-Jib Kim and Soo-Eon Lee

OBJECTIVE

The Dynesys, a pedicle-based dynamic stabilization (PDS) system, was introduced to overcome the drawbacks of fusion procedures. Nevertheless, the theoretical advantages of PDS over fusion have not been clearly confirmed. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes of patients who underwent PDS using the Dynesys system with those who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF).

METHODS

The authors searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database. Studies that reported outcomes of patients who underwent PDS or PLIF for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal disease were included. The primary efficacy end points were perioperative outcomes. The secondary efficacy end points were changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and back and leg pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores and in range of motion (ROM) at the treated and adjacent segments. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs), 95% confidence intervals, Q statistics, and I2 values. Forest plots were constructed for each analysis group.

RESULTS

Of the 274 retrieved articles, 7 (which involved 506 participants [Dynesys, 250; PLIF, 256]) met the inclusion criteria. The Dynesys group showed a competitive advantage in mean surgery duration (20.73 minutes, 95% CI 8.76–32.70 minutes), blood loss (81.87 ml, 95% CI 45.11–118.63 ml), and length of hospital stay (1.32 days, 95% CI 0.23–2.41 days). Both the Dynesys and PLIF groups experienced improved ODI and VAS scores after 2 years of follow-up. Regarding the ODI and VAS scores, no statistically significant difference was noted according to surgical procedure (ODI: WMD 0.12, 95% CI −3.48 to 3.72; back pain VAS score: WMD −0.15; 95% CI −0.56 to 0.26; leg pain VAS score: WMD −0.07; 95% CI −0.47 to 0.32). The mean ROM at the adjacent segment increased in both groups, and there was no substantial difference between them (WMD 1.13; 95% CI −0.33 to 2.59). Although the United States is the biggest market for Dynesys, no eligible study from the United States was found, and 4 of 8 enrolled studies were performed in China. The results must be interpreted with caution because of publication bias. During Dynesys implantation, surgeons have to decide the length of the spacer and cord pretension. These values are debatable and can vary according to the surgeon's experience and the patient's condition. Differences between the surgical procedures were not considered in this study.

CONCLUSIONS

Fusion still remains the method of choice for advanced degeneration and gross instability. However, spinal degenerative disease with or without Grade I spondylolisthesis, particularly in patients who require a quicker recovery, will likely constitute the main indication for PDS using the Dynesys system.