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Kentaro Yamada, Yuichiro Abe, and Shigenobu Satoh

OBJECTIVE

S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screws are commonly used as anchors for lumbosacral fixation. A serious potential complication of screw insertion is major vascular injury due to anterior or caudal screw deviation. To avoid screw deviation, the pelvic inlet view on intraoperative fluoroscopy images is recommended. However, there has been no detailed investigation of optimal fluoroscopic incline with the pelvic inlet view. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety margins and to optimize fluoroscopic settings to avoid screw deviation with 2 reported insertion techniques using 3D analysis software and CT.

METHODS

The study included 50 patients (25 men and 25 women) who underwent abdominal-pelvic CT. With the use of software, the ideal S2AI screws were set from 2 entry points: A) the midpoint between the S-1 dorsal foramen and the S-2 dorsal foramen where they meet the lateral sacral crest, and B) 1 mm inferior and 1 mm lateral to the S-1 dorsal foramen. Anteriorly or caudally deviated screws were defined as deviation of a half thread of the ideal screw by rotation anteriorly or caudally from the entry point. The angular safety margins were compared between the 2 entry points, and patients with small safety margins were investigated. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were virtualized on ray sum–rendered images. Conditions that provided proper recognition of screw deviation were investigated via lateral and anteroposterior views with the beam tilted caudally.

RESULTS

The safety margins of S2AI screws were smaller in the anterior direction than in the caudal direction and by entry point A than by entry point B (A: 9.1° ± 1.6° and B: 9.7° ± 1.5° in the anterior direction; A: 10.9° ± 3.8° and B: 13.9° ± 4.1° in the caudal direction). In contrast, patients with a deep-seated L-5 vertebral body tended to have smaller safety margins in the caudal direction. All anteriorly deviated screws were recognized with a 60°–70° inlet view from the S-1 slope. The caudally deviated screws were all recognized on the lateral view, but 31% of screws at entry point A and 21% of screws at entry point B were not recognized on the pelvic inlet view.

CONCLUSIONS

S2AI screws should be carefully placed to avoid anterior deviation compared with caudal deviation in terms of the safety margin, except in patients with a deep-seated L-5. The difference in safety margins between entry points A and B was negligible. Intraoperative fluoroscopy is recommended with a pelvic inlet view tilted 60°–70° from the S-1 slope to avoid anterior screw deviation. The lateral view is recommended to confirm that the screw is not deviated caudally.

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Sho Dohzono, Akinobu Suzuki, Tatsuya Koike, Shinji Takahashi, Kentaro Yamada, Hiroyuki Yasuda, and Hiroaki Nakamura

OBJECTIVE

Increasing soft-tissue mass posterior to the odontoid process causes spinal cord compression. Retro-odontoid pseudotumors are considered to be associated with atlantoaxial instability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the exact mechanism by which these lesions develop has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between retro-odontoid soft-tissue (ROST) thickness and radiological findings or clinical data in patients with RA.

METHODS

A total of 201 patients with RA who had been followed up at the outpatient clinic of the authors' institution were enrolled in this study. ROST thickness was evaluated on midsagittal T1-weighted MRI. The correlations between ROST thickness and radiographic findings or clinical data on RA were examined. The independent factors related to ROST thickness were analyzed using stepwise multiple regression analysis.

RESULTS

The average thickness of ROST was 3.0 ± 1.4 mm. ROST thickness showed an inverse correlation with disease duration (r = −0.329, p < 0.01), Steinbrocker stage (r = −0.284, p < 0.01), the atlantodental interval (ADI) in the neutral position (r = −0.326, p < 0.01), the ADI in the flexion position (r = −0.383, p < 0.01), and the ADI in the extension position (r = −0.240, p < 0.01). On stepwise multiple regression analysis, ADI in the flexion position and Steinbrocker stage were independent factors associated with ROST thickness.

CONCLUSIONS

Although the correlations were not strong, ROST thickness in patients with RA was inversely correlated with ADI and Steinbrocker stage. In other words, ROST thickness tends to be smaller as atlantoaxial instability and peripheral joint destruction worsen.

Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000000980 (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry)

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Hiroshi Nishioka, Noriaki Fukuhara, Kentaro Horiguchi, and Shozo Yamada

Object

Cavernous sinus (CS) invasion is the most important preoperative predictor of remission in the surgical treatment of growth hormone–producing pituitary adenomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggressive technique for removal of tumors invading the CS in patients with acromegaly.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of 150 consecutive patients with acromegaly who underwent primary transsphenoidal surgery in 2010 and 2011. The authors reviewed preoperative Knosp grade, intraoperative findings, histology of the medial wall of the CS, and surgical outcome according to the current consensus criteria for acromegaly.

Results

Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 55 patients (36.7%): definite CS involvement by the tumor was observed under direct vision in 41 patients (74.5%), while invasion was histologically verified in 39 patients (70.9%). Invasion increased in frequency with the higher Knosp grade but was observed in 14.4% (13 of 90) of Grade 0 and 1 tumors. Overall, the remission rate fulfilling stringent criteria was 84.7% (127 of 150). Although CS invasion was significantly associated with an unfavorable outcome (p < 0.0001), remission was achieved in 69.1% (38 of 55) of patients with invasion. No major complications occurred in this series.

Conclusions

Cavernous sinus invasion is the most significant, independent predictor of unfavorable outcome. Confirmation of invasion requires direct observation within the CS regardless of the microscope or endoscope used. Particularly in cases in which only the medial wall is involved, histological verification is always necessary to detect the occult invasion. Direct removal of the invading tumor, by sharp excision of the medial wall of the CS, is effective and safe and increases the chance of remission.

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Yasushi Motoyama, Tsukasa Nakajima, Yoshiaki Takamura, Tsutomu Nakazawa, Daisuke Wajima, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroshi Yokota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Mitsutoshi Nakamura, and Hiroyuki Nakase

OBJECTIVE

Lumbar spinal drainage (LSD) during neurosurgery can have an important effect by facilitating a smooth procedure when needed. However, LSD is quite invasive, and the pathology of brain herniation associated with LSD has become known recently. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of postoperative brain herniation after craniotomy with LSD in neurosurgery overall.

METHODS

Included were 239 patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD for various types of neurological diseases between January 2007 and December 2016. The authors performed propensity score matching to establish a proper control group taken from among 1424 patients who underwent craniotomy and met the inclusion criteria during the same period. The incidences of postoperative brain herniation between the patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD (group A, n = 239) and the matched patients who underwent craniotomy without LSD (group B, n = 239) were compared.

RESULTS

Brain herniation was observed in 24 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.36–8.46, p = 0.005), but the rate of favorable outcomes was higher in group A (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18–2.76, p = 0.005). Of the 24 patients, 18 had uncal herniation, 5 had central herniation, and 1 had uncal and subfalcine herniation; 8 patients with other than subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Significant differences in the rates of deep approach (OR 5.12, 95% CI 1.8–14.5, p = 0.002) and temporal craniotomy (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.3–44.8, p = 0.002) were found between the 2 subgroups (those with and those without herniation) in group A. In 5 patients, brain herniation proceeded even after external decompression (ED). Cox regression analysis revealed that the risk of brain herniation related to LSD increased with ED (hazard ratio 3.326, 95% CI 1.491–7.422, p < 0.001). Among all 1424 patients, ED resulted in progression or deterioration of brain herniation more frequently in those who underwent LSD than it did in those who did not undergo LSD (OR 9.127, 95% CI 1.82–62.1, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Brain herniation downward to the tentorial hiatus is more likely to occur after craniotomy with LSD than after craniotomy without LSD. Using a deep approach and craniotomy involving the temporal areas are risk factors for brain herniation related to LSD. Additional ED would aggravate brain herniation after LSD. The risk of brain herniation after placement of a lumbar spinal drain during neurosurgery must be considered even when LSD is essential.

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Shozo Yamada, Noriaki Fukuhara, Kentaro Horiguchi, Mitsuo Yamaguchi-Okada, Hiroshi Nishioka, Akira Takeshita, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Junko Ito, and Naoko Inoshita

Object

The aim of this study was to analyze clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large single-center clinical series of cases of thyrotropin (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenomas.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical, pathological, and treatment characteristics of 90 consecutive cases of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas treated with transsphenoidal surgery between December 1991 and May 2013. The patient group included 47 females and 43 males (median age 42 years, range 11–74 years).

Results

Sixteen tumors (18%) were microadenomas and 74 (82%) were macroadenomas. Microadenomas were significantly more frequent in the more recent half of our case series (12 of 45 cases) (p = 0.0274). Cavernous sinus invasion was confirmed in 21 patients (23%). In 67 cases (74%), the tumors were firm elastic or hard in consistency. Acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia were observed, respectively, in 14 (16%) and 11 (12%) of the 90 cases. Euthyroidism was achieved in 40 (83%) of 48 patients and tumor shrinkage was found in 24 (55%) of 44 patients following preoperative somatostatin analog treatment. Conventional transsphenoidal surgery, extended transsphenoidal surgery, and a simultaneous combined supra- and infrasellar approach were performed in 85, 2, and 3 patients, respectively. Total removal with endocrinological remission was achieved in 76 (84%) of 90 patients, including all 16 (100%) patients with microadenomas, 60 (81%) of the 74 with macroadenomas, and 8 (38%) of the 21 with cavernous sinus invasion. None of these 76 patients experienced tumor recurrence during a median follow-up period of 2.8 years. Stratifying by Knosp grade, total removal with endocrinological remission was achieved in 34 of 36 patients with Knosp Grade 0 tumors, all 24 of those with Grade 1 tumors, 12 of the 14 with Grade 2 tumors, 6 of the 8 with Grade 3 tumors, and none of the 8 with Grade 4 tumors. Cavernous sinus invasion and tumor size were significant independent predictors of surgical outcome. Immunoreactivity for growth hormone, prolactin, or both hormones was present in 32, 9, and 24 patients, respectively. The Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3% in 71 (97%) of 73 tumors for which it was obtained and 3% or more in 2. Postsurgery pituitary dysfunction was found in 15 patients (17%) and delayed hyponatremia was seen in 9.

Conclusions

TSH-secreting adenomas, particularly those in the microadenoma stage, have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. The high surgical success rate achieved in this series is due to relatively early diagnosis and relatively small tumor size. In addition, the surgical strategies used, such as extracapsular removal of hard or solid adenomas, aggressive resction of tumors with cavernous sinus invasion, or extended transsphenoidal surgery or a simultaneous combined approach for large/giant multilobulated adenomas, also may improve remission rate with a minimal incidence of complications.

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Hamidullah Salimi, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Kentaro Yamada, Hidetomi Terai, Masatoshi Hoshino, Akinobu Suzuki, Shinji Takahashi, Koji Tamai, Yusuke Hori, Akito Yabu, and Hiroaki Nakamura

OBJECTIVE

Several studies have examined the relationship between sagittal spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes after spinal surgery. However, the long-term reciprocal changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis after decompression surgery remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate radiographic changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups after minimally invasive lumbar decompression surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively studied the medical records of 110 patients who underwent bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach for lumbar spinal stenosis. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for low-back pain (LBP), leg pain, leg numbness, and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated before surgery and at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups. Sagittal malalignment was defined as a sagittal vertical axis (SVA) ≥ 50 mm.

RESULTS

Compared with baseline, lumbar lordosis significantly increased after decompression surgery at the 2-year (30.2° vs 38.5°, respectively; p < 0.001) and 5-year (30.2° vs 35.7°, respectively; p < 0.001) follow-ups. SVA significantly decreased at the 2-year follow-up compared with baseline (36.1 mm vs 51.5 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in SVA at the 5-year follow-up compared with baseline (50.6 mm vs 51.5 mm, respectively; p = 0.812). At the 5-year follow-up, 82.5% of patients with preoperative normal alignment maintained normal alignment, whereas 42.6% of patients with preoperative malalignment developed normal alignment. Preoperative sagittal malalignment was associated with the VAS score for LBP at baseline and 2-year and 5-year follow-ups and the JOA score at the 5-year follow-up. Postoperative sagittal malalignment was associated with the VAS score for LBP at the 2-year and 5-year follow-ups and the VAS score for leg pain at the 5-year follow-up. There was a trend toward deterioration in clinical outcomes in patients with persistent postural malalignment compared with other patients.

CONCLUSIONS

After minimally invasive surgery, spinal sagittal malalignment can convert to normal alignment at both short-term and long-term follow-ups. Sagittal malalignment has a negative impact on the VAS score for LBP and a weakly negative impact on the JOA score after decompression surgery.