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Satoru Takeuchi, Kojiro Wada, Kimihiro Nagatani, Naoki Otani and Kentaro Mori

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is devastating, with high mortality rates, but its optimum management has not been fully established. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is a surgical procedure used to relieve the malignant elevation of intracranial pressure. The application of decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients with hemispheric ICH has been much less common, although several studies have shown the usefulness of this procedure for large hemispheric ICH. In this review, the present knowledge of the safety and efficacy of this procedure are evaluated. The authors conclude that decompressive hemicraniectomy with hematoma evacuation for large ICH might be a safe and effective procedure in patients with severely disturbed consciousness and large hematoma volume.

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Naoki Otani, Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka and Satoru Takeuchi

OBJECTIVE

Pineal region meningiomas are rare and tend to be discovered only after they grow. Several simultaneous multidirectional approaches performed as a single operation have been proposed, but the best strategy to remove these deeply situated large meningiomas involving the deep vital venous system remains to be established. The authors advocate a multistaged, multidirectional approach to safely remove these challenging tumors.

METHODS

Four consecutive cases of meningioma in the pineal region were treated between April 2013 and June 2016. The 3 large (> 40 mm diameter) tumors were removed via multistaged, multidirectional approaches (2 surgeries in 2 patients and 3 surgeries in 1 patient) with gravity retraction of the occipital or parietal lobe. The large occipital skin incision extending bilaterally was used for the next operation from the contralateral side. Combinations of the occipital transtentorial approach with or without the transfalcine approach, occipital bitranstentorial/falcine approach, combined supra-/infratentorial transsinus approach, and contralateral parietal interhemispheric transcallosal approach were used.

RESULTS

Transient visual field deficits occurred after 2 of the 8 operations, but all tumors were removed grossly or subtotally without permanent surgery-related morbidity. The galenic venous system and straight sinus remained intact in all patients. During the follow-up period (mean 29.5 months [range 13–52 months]), there were no recurrences after the final operation.

CONCLUSIONS

A multistaged, multidirectional strategy with an intentional large occipital scalp incision and gravity retraction of the occipital lobe is a good choice for the safe removal of large meningiomas in the pineal region.

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Takuji Yamamoto, Kentaro Mori, Takanori Esaki, Yasuaki Nakao, Joji Tokugawa and Mitsuya Watanabe

OBJECT

Although cerebral vasospasm (CV) is one of the most important predictors for the outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), no treatment has yet been established for this condition. This study investigated the efficacy of continuous direct infusion of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solution into the intrathecal cistern in patients with an aneurysmal SAH.

METHODS

An SAH caused by a ruptured aneurysm was identified on CT scans within 72 hours after SAH onset. All patients were treated by surgical clipping and randomized into 2 groups: a control group of patients undergoing a standard treatment and a magnesium (Mg) group of patients additionally undergoing continuous infusion of 5 mmol/L MgSO4 solution for 14 days. The Mg2+ concentrations in serum and CSF were recorded daily. Neurological examinations were performed by intensive care clinicians. Delayed cerebral ischemia was monitored by CT or MRI. To assess the effect of the Mg treatment on CV, the CVs were graded on the basis of the relative degree of constriction visible on cerebral angiograms taken on Day 10 after the SAH, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed daily to measure blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurological outcomes and mortality rates were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale at 3 months after SAH onset.

RESULTS

Seventy-three patients admitted during the period of April 2008 to March 2013 were eligible and enrolled in this study. Three patients were excluded because of violation of protocol requirements. The 2 groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, or Fisher grade. In the Mg group, the Mg2+ concentration in CSF gradually increased from Day 4 after initiation of the continuous MgSO4 intrathecal administration. No such increase was observed in the control group. No significant changes in the serum Mg2+ levels were observed for 14 days, and no cardiovascular complications such as bradycardia or hypotension were observed in any of the patients. However, bradypnea was noted among patients in the Mg group. The Mg group had a significantly better CV grade than the control group (p < 0.05). Compared with the patients in the Mg group, those in the control group had a significantly elevated blood flow velocity in the MCA. Both groups were similar in the incidences of cerebral infarction, and the 2 groups also did not significantly differ in clinical outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Continuous cisternal irrigation with MgSO4 solution starting on Day 4 and continuing to Day 14 significantly inhibited CV in patients with aneurysmal SAH without severe cardiovascular complications. However, this improvement in CV neither reduced the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia nor improved the functional outcomes in patients with SAH.

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Kentaro Mori, Masahiro Miyazaki, Yasukazu Hara, Yasuhisa Aiko, Takuji Yamamoto and Yasuaki Nakao

Object

The extracellular Mg++ has a vasodilatory effect on the cerebral artery. The present study investigated the effect of intracisternal injection of MgSO4 solution on cerebral vasospasm in a canine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods

Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in 10 beagles using the two-hemorrhage model. Angiography of the vertebrobasilar artery was performed on Day 1 (baseline values before SAH) and on Day 7 (during cerebral vasospasm after induced SAH) before and after intracisternal injection of 0.5 ml/kg of 15 mmol/L MgSO4 solution into the cerebellomedullary cistern.

Results

The cerebrospinal fluid Mg++ concentration was significantly increased to 3.15 ± 1.14 mEq/L after intracisternal injection from the preinjection value (1.45 ± 0.09 mEq/L; p < 0.01). The diameters of the basilar artery, vertebral artery, and superior cerebellar artery on Day 7 were significantly decreased to 58.0 ± 10.9%, 71.0 ± 10.1%, and 60.9 ± 13.8%, respectively, of their baseline diameters on Day 1 (p < 0.01). After intracisternal injection of MgSO4, these diameters significantly increased to 73.8 ± 14.3%, 83.0 ± 14.8%, and 74.1 ± 13.5%, respectively (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Intracisternal injection of MgSO4 solution causes significant dilation of spastic cerebral arteries in the canine two-hemorrhage model of SAH.

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Terushige Toyooka, Naoki Otani, Kojiro Wada, Arata Tomiyama, Satoru Takeuchi, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Takashi Fujii and Kentaro Mori

OBJECTIVE

The head-up display (HUD) is a modern technology that projects images or numeric information directly into the observer’s sight line. Surgeons will no longer need to look away from the surgical view using the HUD system to confirm the preoperative or navigation image. The present study investigated the usefulness of the HUD system for performing cerebral aneurysm clipping surgeries.

METHODS

Thirty-five patients underwent clipping surgery, including 20 keyhole surgeries for unruptured cerebral aneurysm, using the HUD system. Image information of structures such as the skull, cerebral vasculature, and aneurysm was integrated by the navigation software and linked with the positional coordinates of the microscope field of view. “Image injection” allowed visualization of the main structures that were concurrently tracked by the navigation image, and “closed shutter” switched the microscope field of view and the pointer image of the 3D brain image.

RESULTS

The HUD system was effective for estimating the location and 3D anatomy of the aneurysm before craniotomy or dural opening in most patients. Scheduled keyhole minicraniotomy and opening of the sylvian fissure or partial rectal gyrus resection were performed on the optimized location with a minimum size in 20 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The HUD images superimposed on the microscope field of view were remarkably useful for less invasive and more safe aneurysm clipping and, in particular, keyhole clipping.

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Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Naoki Otani, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Satoru Takeuchi, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao and Hajime Arai

OBJECTIVE

Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are still most often treated by clipping through standard craniotomy, but a longer hospital stay is one of the main drawbacks of this treatment. The authors developed a pterional keyhole clipping strategy for unruptured MCA aneurysms with the intention of minimizing hospital stay. In this paper, they report on their experience with this approach and analyze the long-term neurological and radiological outcomes.

METHODS

A total of 160 relatively small unruptured MCA aneurysms (mean 6.4 mm) were clipped through the pterional keyhole approach (19–30 mm, mean 24.6 mm) in 149 patients (aged 34–79 years, mean 62 years). Neurological and cognitive function were examined by several scales, including the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients’ level of depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Scale. The state of clipping was assessed at 1 year and then every few years after the operation.

RESULTS

The mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 2.3 ± 3.4 days; in 31.3% of the cases, the patients were discharged on the day after the operation (overnight hospital stay) and in 93.2% within 3 days. Of the patients younger than 60 years, 40.4% required only an overnight stay. Complete aneurysm neck clipping was confirmed in 157 cases (98.1%). None of the completely clipped aneurysms showed any recurrence during the mean follow-up period of 5.0 years. The mean length of clinical follow-up was 5.4 years. After 2 (1.3%) of the surgical procedures, the patients showed persistent neurological deficits, defined as mRS score 1, but the overall operative morbidity based on the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) definition (mRS score ≥ 2 or MMSE score < 24) was 0% at the last examination. Depression scores were significantly improved after surgery, and in 85.6% of the cases the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic results.

CONCLUSIONS

Pterional keyhole clipping is less invasive than clipping via standard craniotomy, minimizes hospital stay, and achieves durable treatment for relatively small unruptured MCA aneurysms.

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Naoki Otani, Terushige Toyooka, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Satoru Takeuchi, Arata Tomiyama, Yasuaki Nakao, Takuji Yamamoto, Kojiro Wada and Kentaro Mori

OBJECTIVE

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is effective for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. The transposition technique is the standard procedure to avoid adhesions and granuloma around the decompression site but is more complex and difficult to perform than the interposition technique. The authors describe a simple and safe MVD transposition procedure they call the “birdlime” technique, which uses a tissue glue–coated collagen sponge soaked with fibrin glue, and the results of this technique.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and radiographic findings of 27 consecutive patients with TN (8 patients) and HFS (19 patients) who, between January 2012 and December 2015, had undergone an MVD transposition procedure utilizing a tissue glue–coated collagen sponge (TachoSil tissue sealing sheet) soaked with fibrin glue (Tisseel 2-component fibrin sealant, vapor heated). Offending arteries among the patients with TN were the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in 5 patients, the SCA and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in 2, and the AICA in 1. Those among the patients with HFS were the vertebral artery (VA) in 3 patients, the VA and AICA in 4, the VA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 3, the PICA in 4, the AICA in 1, the AICA-PICA in 3, and the PICA and AICA in 1. Operations were performed according to the Jannetta procedure. The offending artery was transposed and fixed to the dura mater of the petrous bone using TachoSil pieces soaked with fibrin glue. Postoperative constructive interference in steady-state MRI was performed to evaluate the change in the position of the offending artery.

RESULTS

Transposition of the offending artery was easily and safely performed in all patients. All patients had total remission of symptoms directly after the procedure. No severe complications occurred. The postoperative course was uneventful. No recurrences, adhesions, or dysfunction of the cranial nerves was observed in any of the patients. Postoperative MRI showed that the offending vessels were displaced and fixed in the appropriate position.

CONCLUSIONS

The described transposition technique provides an easy and adjustable way to perform MVD safely and effectively. In addition, this transposition and fixation technique is simple and avoids the risk of needle injury close to the cranial nerves and vessels. This simple sutureless technique is recommended for MVD to reduce the risk of intraoperative neurovascular injury.

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Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Naoki Otani, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Satoru Takeuchi, Satoshi Tomura, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao and Hajime Arai

OBJECTIVE

Advanced age is known to be associated with a poor prognosis after surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Keyhole clipping techniques have been introduced for less invasive treatment of UIAs. In this study, the authors compared the complications and clinical and radiological outcomes after keyhole clipping between nonfrail elderly patients (≥ 70 years) and nonelderly patients.

METHODS

Keyhole clipping (either supraorbital or pterional) was performed to treat 260 cases of relatively small (≤ 10 mm) anterior circulation UIAs. There were 62 cases in the nonfrail elderly group (mean age 72.9 ± 2.6 years [± SD]) and 198 cases in the nonelderly group (mean age 59.5 ± 7.6 years). The authors evaluated mortality and morbidity (modified Rankin Scale score > 2 or Mini–Mental State Examination [MMSE] score < 24) at 3 months and 1 year after the operation, the general cognitive function by MMSE at 3 months and 1 year, anxiety and depression by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) at 3 months, and radiological abnormalities and recurrence at 1 year.

RESULTS

Basic characteristics including comorbidities, frailty, and BDI and HAM-D scores were not significantly different between the 2 groups, whereas the MMSE score was slightly but significantly lower in the elderly group. Aneurysm location, largest diameter, type of keyhole surgery, neck clipping rate, and hospitalization period were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The incidence of chronic subdural hematoma was not significantly higher in the elderly group than in the nonelderly group (8.1% vs 4.5%, p = 0.332); rates of other complications including stroke and epilepsy were not significantly different. Lacunar infarction occurred in 3.2% of the elderly group and 3.0% of the nonelderly group. No patient in the elderly group required re-treatment or demonstrated recurrence of clipped aneurysms. The MMSE score at 3 months significantly improved in the nonelderly group but did not change in the elderly group. The BDI and HAM-D scores at 3 months were significantly improved in both groups. No patient died in either group. The morbidity at 3 months and 1 year in the elderly group (1.6% and 4.8%, respectively) was not significantly different from that in the nonelderly group (2.0% and 1.5%, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Keyhole clipping for nonfrail elderly patients with relatively small anterior circulation UIAs did not significantly increase the complication, mortality, or morbidity rate; hospitalization period; or aneurysm recurrence compared with nonelderly patients, and it was associated with improvement in anxiety and depression. Keyhole clipping to treat UIAs in the nonfrail elderly is an effective and long-lasting treatment.

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Kentaro Mori, Takuji Yamamoto, Masahiro Miyazaki, Yasukazu Hara, Yasuhisa Aiko, Nobuhiro Koike, Shinsuke Sakamoto, Yasuaki Nakao and Takanori Esaki

Object

The optimal CSF Mg++ concentration for vasodilation of spastic cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and its duration are unknown. The temporal profile of the vasodilatory effect and optimal CSF Mg++ concentration after the intracisternal injection of MgSO4 solution were investigated in an SAH model in canines.

Methods

Cerebral vasospasm was induced by experimental SAH using a 2-hemorrhage model in 26 female beagles. On Day 7, 0.5 ml/kg of 15, 10, 5, or 0 mmol/L MgSO4 in Ringer solution was injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern. Angiography was performed on Day 1 (before SAH) and before and 1, 3, and 6 hours after the intracisternal injection on Day 7 to measure arterial diameters of the basilar artery (BA), superior cerebellar artery (SCA), and vertebral artery (VA). Cerebrospinal fluid Mg++ was also measured at the same time.

Results

Arterial diameters of the BA, SCA, and VA were significantly decreased by vasospasm on Day 7. Arterial diameter ratios (ratio of arterial diameter after MgSO4 injection to diameter before injection on Day 7) of the BA and SCA at 1 and 3 hours after and the VA at 1 hour after intracisternal injection of the MgSO4 solution were positively correlated with the CSF Mg++ concentration. All arterial diameter ratios, except 1 point of the SCA, exceeded 1 if the CSF Mg++ concentration was > 3 mEq/L at 1 hour after injection. Animals with CSF Mg++ concentrations > 3 mEq/L at 1 hour after injection (11 dogs) showed significantly increased arterial diameters of the BA at 1 and 3 hours after and of the SCA and VA at 1, 3, and 6 hours after injection, as compared with the diameters before injection. The CSF Mg++ concentration significantly increased at 1 hour (3.73 ± 0.69 mEq/L, p < 0.01) and 3 hours (2.05 ± 0.35 mEq/L, p < 0.01) after the intracisternal injection as compared with the baseline value (1.41 ± 0.20 mEq/L).

Conclusions

The reversible effect of an intracisternal injection of MgSO4 solution on the spastic artery requires CSF Mg++ concentrations > 3 mEq/L. The vasodilatory effect continues for 3–6 hours after injection. These results suggest that the continuous infusion or intermittent intracisternal injection of MgSO4 is needed to maintain the optimal CSF Mg++ concentration and constantly ameliorate cerebral vasospasm.

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Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Naoki Otani, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Satoru Takeuchi, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao and Hajime Arai

OBJECTIVE

Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are still most often treated by clipping through standard craniotomy, but a longer hospital stay is one of the main drawbacks of this treatment. The authors developed a pterional keyhole clipping strategy for unruptured MCA aneurysms with the intention of minimizing hospital stay. In this paper, they report on their experience with this approach and analyze the long-term neurological and radiological outcomes.

METHODS

A total of 160 relatively small unruptured MCA aneurysms (mean 6.4 mm) were clipped through the pterional keyhole approach (19–30 mm, mean 24.6 mm) in 149 patients (aged 34–79 years, mean 62 years). Neurological and cognitive function were examined by several scales, including the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients’ level of depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Scale. The state of clipping was assessed at 1 year and then every few years after the operation.

RESULTS

The mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 2.3 ± 3.4 days; in 31.3% of the cases, the patients were discharged on the day after the operation (overnight hospital stay) and in 93.2% within 3 days. Of the patients younger than 60 years, 40.4% required only an overnight stay. Complete aneurysm neck clipping was confirmed in 157 cases (98.1%). None of the completely clipped aneurysms showed any recurrence during the mean follow-up period of 5.0 years. The mean length of clinical follow-up was 5.4 years. After 2 (1.3%) of the surgical procedures, the patients showed persistent neurological deficits, defined as mRS score 1, but the overall operative morbidity based on the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) definition (mRS score ≥ 2 or MMSE score < 24) was 0% at the last examination. Depression scores were significantly improved after surgery, and in 85.6% of the cases the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic results.

CONCLUSIONS

Pterional keyhole clipping is less invasive than clipping via standard craniotomy, minimizes hospital stay, and achieves durable treatment for relatively small unruptured MCA aneurysms.