Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Kent R. Richter x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jack M. Haglin, Kent R. Richter, and Naresh P. Patel

OBJECTIVE

There is currently a paucity of literature evaluating procedural reimbursements and financial trends in neurosurgery. A comprehensive understanding of the economic trends and financial health of neurosurgery is important to ensure the sustained success and growth of the specialty moving forward. The purpose of this study was to evaluate monetary trends of the 10 most common spinal and cranial neurosurgical procedures in Medicare reimbursement rates from 2000 to 2018.

METHODS

The Physician Fee Schedule Look-Up Tool from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services was queried for each of the top 10 most utilized Current Procedural Terminology codes in both spinal and cranial neurosurgery, and comprehensive reimbursement data were extracted. The raw percent change in Medicare reimbursement rate from 2000 to 2018 was calculated for each procedure and averaged. This was then compared to the percent change in consumer price index over the same time. Using data adjusted for inflation, trend analysis was performed for all included procedures. Adjusted R-squared and both the average annual and the total percent change in reimbursement were calculated based on these adjusted trends for all included procedures. Likewise, the compound annual growth rate was calculated for all procedures.

RESULTS

When all reimbursement data were adjusted for inflation, the average reimbursement for all procedures decreased by an average of 25.80% from 2000 to 2018. From 2000 to 2018, the adjusted reimbursement rate for all included procedures decreased by an average of 1.59% each year and experienced an average compound annual growth rate of −1.66%, indicating a steady annual decline in reimbursement when adjusted for inflation.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to evaluate comprehensive trends in Medicare reimbursement in neurosurgery. When adjusted for inflation, Medicare reimbursement for all included procedures has steadily decreased from 2000 to 2018, with similar rates of decline observed between cranial and spinal neurosurgery procedures. Increased awareness and consideration of these trends will be important moving forward for policy makers, hospitals, and neurosurgeons as continued progress is made to advance agreeable reimbursement models that allow for the sustained growth of neurosurgery in the United States.

Restricted access

Jack M. Haglin, Michelle A. Zabat, Kent R. Richter, Kade S. McQuivey, Jakub Godzik, Naresh P. Patel, Adam E. M. Eltorai, and Alan H. Daniels

OBJECTIVE

Procedural reimbursement for spine surgery has changed drastically over the past 20 years. A comprehensive understanding of these trends is important as major changes in reimbursement models of spine surgery continue to evolve within various spine specialties as well as broader national healthcare policy. In this study the authors evaluated the monetary trends in Medicare reimbursement rates for the 15 most common spinal surgery procedures from 2000 to 2021.

METHODS

The National Surgery Quality Improvement Project database (2019) was queried to determine the 15 most commonly performed spine surgery procedures. The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for each of these procedures were obtained from the Physician Fee Schedule Look-Up Tool from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and comprehensive reimbursement data for each code were extracted. Changes in Medicare reimbursement rates were calculated and averaged for each procedure as both raw percent changes and percent changes adjusted for inflation to 2021 US dollars (USD) based on the consumer price index (CPI). The adjusted R2 value, the compound annual growth rate (CAGR), and both the average annual and the total percent change in reimbursement were calculated based on these adjusted trends for all included procedures.

RESULTS

After adjustment for inflation, average reimbursement for all procedures decreased by 33.8% from 2000 to 2021. The greatest mean decrease was seen in anterior cervical arthrodesis (−38.7%), while the smallest mean decrease was in vertebral body excision (−17.1%). From 2000 to 2021, the adjusted reimbursement rate for all included procedures decreased by an average of 1.9% each year, with an average R2 value of 0.69.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to evaluate monetary trends in Medicare reimbursement for spine surgery procedures. After adjusting for inflation, Medicare reimbursement for the 15 most commonly performed spine procedures has steadily decreased from 2000 to 2021. Increased awareness of these trends and the forces driving them will be critical in the coming years as negotiations regarding reimbursement models continue to unfold. Greater understanding of spine surgery reimbursement among policy makers, hospitals, and surgeons will be important to ensure continued access to quality surgical spine care in the United States.

Restricted access

Desmond A. Brown, Anshit Goyal, Kent R. Richter, Jack M. Haglin, Benjamin T. Himes, Victor M. Lu, Kendall Snyder, Joshua Hughes, Paul A. Decker, Michael Opoku-Darko, Michael J. Link, Terry C. Burns, and Ian F. Parney

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine the frequency with which brain biopsy for presumed CNS relapse of systemic hematological malignancies yields new, actionable diagnostic information. Hematological malignancies represent a disparate group of genetic and histopathological disorders. Proclivity for brain involvement is dependent on the unique entity and may occur synchronously or metasynchronously with the systemic lesion. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) have a high propensity for brain involvement. Patients in remission from systemic DLBCL may present with a lesion suspicious for brain relapse. These patients often undergo brain biopsy. The authors’ a priori hypothesis was that brain biopsy in patients with a history of systemic DLBCL and a new brain MRI lesion would have lower diagnostic utility compared with patients with non-DLBCL systemic malignancies.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent brain biopsy between 2000 and 2019. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥ 18 years of age with a prior systemic hematological malignancy in remission presenting with a new brain MRI lesion concerning for CNS relapse. Patients with a history of any CNS neoplasms, demyelinating disorders, or active systemic disease were excluded. The main outcome was the proportion of patients with a distinct histopathological brain diagnosis compared with the systemic malignancy. The authors secondarily assessed overall survival, procedure-related morbidity, and 30-day mortality.

RESULTS

Sixty patients met inclusion criteria (40 males and 20 females); the median age at brain biopsy was 67 years (range 23–88 years). The median follow-up was 8.5 months (range 0.1–231 months). Thirty-nine (65.0%) patients had DLBCL and 21 (35%) had non-DLBCL malignancies. Thirty-five of 36 (97.2%) patients with prior systemic DLBCL and a diagnostic biopsy had histopathological confirmation of the original systemic disease versus 0 of 21 patients with non-DLBCL systemic malignancies (p < 0.001). Morbidity and 30-day mortality were 8.3% and 10.0%, respectively; 2 of 6 30-day mortalities were directly attributable to the biopsy. The median overall survival following brain biopsy was 10.8 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with a history of systemic DLBCL and presumed CNS relapse gained minimal clinical benefit from brain biopsy but were at high risk of morbidity and mortality. In patients with a history of non-DLBCL systemic malignancies, brain biopsy remained critical given the high likelihood for discovery of distinct diagnostic entities. It was determined that patients with a prior systemic DLBCL and presumed brain relapse should likely receive empirical therapy obviating treatment delay and the risks of brain biopsy.