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Sukwoo Hong, Daisuke Hirokawa, Kenichi Usami and Hideki Ogiwara

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to clarify the long-term outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in pediatric hydrocephalus in light of the ETV Success Score (ETVSS), shunt dependency, and intellectual development.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed pediatric patients with hydrocephalus who underwent ETV between 2002 and 2012 and who were followed for longer than 5 years as a single-center cohort. The data of the patients’ pre- and postoperative status were collected. The relationships between ETVSS and the full-scale IQ as well as shunt dependency were analyzed. The usefulness of ETVSS for repeat ETV and the change of radiological parameters of ventricle size before and after ETV were also analyzed. The success of ETV was defined as no requirement for further CSF diversion procedures.

RESULTS

Fifty ETVs were performed in 40 patients. The average ETVSS was 61 and the success rate at 6 months was 64%. The mean follow-up was 9.9 years (5.2–15.3 years), and the long-term success rate of ETV was 50%. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve continued to show a statistically significant difference among patients with a low, moderate, and high ETVSS, even after 6 months (p = 0.002). After 15 months from the initial ETV, no patients required additional CSF diversion surgery. There was no statistical significance between ETVSS and the long-term full-scale IQ or shunt dependency (p = 0.34 and 0.12, respectively). The radiological improvement in ventricle size was not associated with better future educational outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

The ETVSS was correlated with the long-term success rate. After 15 months from the initial ETV, no patients required an additional CSF diversion procedure. The ETVSS was not considered to be correlated with long-term intellectual status.

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Douglas Kondziolka

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Kenichi Usami, Kensuke Kawai, Tomoyuki Koga, Masahiro Shin, Hiroki Kurita, Ichiro Suzuki and Nobuhito Saito

Object

Despite the controversy over the clinical significance of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the modality has attracted attention because it is less invasive than resection. The authors report long-term outcomes for 7 patients, focusing in particular on the long-term complications.

Methods

Between 1996 and 1999, 7 patients with MTLE underwent GKS. The 50% marginal dose covering the medial temporal structures was 18 Gy in 2 patients and 25 Gy in the remaining 5 patients.

Results

High-dose treatment abolished the seizures in 2 patients and significantly reduced them in 2 others. One patient in this group was lost to follow-up. However, 2 patients presented with symptomatic radiation necrosis (SRN) necessitating resection after 5 and 10 years. One patient who did not need necrotomy continued to show radiation necrosis on MRI after 10 years. One patient died of drowning while swimming in the sea 1 year after GKS, before seizures had disappeared completely.

Conclusions

High-dose treatment resulted in sufficient seizure control but carried a significant risk of SRN after several years. Excessive target volume was considered as a reason for delayed necrosis. Drawbacks such as a delay in seizure control and the risk of SRN should be considered when the clinical significance of this treatment is evaluated.

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Tomohiro Inoue, Nobutaka Kawahara, Junji Shibahara, Tomohiko Masumoto, Kenichi Usami and Takaaki Kirino

✓ Neurenteric cyst is a developmental malformation found mainly in the spinal canal. The authors report on a 47-year-old man with a neurenteric cyst of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) who presented with progressive hearing disturbance and facial palsy. The tumor was located extradurally with marked destruction of the petrous bone around the internal auditory canal and demonstrated irregular and heterogeneous high-intensity signals on T1- and T2-weighted on MR images, which is atypical for neurenteric cysts. The pathological findings in samples obtained after resection disclosed a single epithelial layer (a feature of neurenteric cyst), which was accompanied by marked xanthogranulomatous changes. Although several neurenteric cysts have been reported in the CPA, extradural lesions with unusual imaging features and marked bone destruction have not been reported previously. This benign developmental lesion should be considered, although it is extremely rare, in patients harboring an extradural temporal bone tumor around the CPA.

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Sukwoo Hong, Daisuke Hirokawa, Kenichi Usami and Hideki Ogiwara

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to clarify the long-term outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in pediatric hydrocephalus in light of the ETV Success Score (ETVSS), shunt dependency, and intellectual development.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed pediatric patients with hydrocephalus who underwent ETV between 2002 and 2012 and who were followed for longer than 5 years as a single-center cohort. The data of the patients’ pre- and postoperative status were collected. The relationships between ETVSS and the full-scale IQ as well as shunt dependency were analyzed. The usefulness of ETVSS for repeat ETV and the change of radiological parameters of ventricle size before and after ETV were also analyzed. The success of ETV was defined as no requirement for further CSF diversion procedures.

RESULTS

Fifty ETVs were performed in 40 patients. The average ETVSS was 61 and the success rate at 6 months was 64%. The mean follow-up was 9.9 years (5.2–15.3 years), and the long-term success rate of ETV was 50%. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve continued to show a statistically significant difference among patients with a low, moderate, and high ETVSS, even after 6 months (p = 0.002). After 15 months from the initial ETV, no patients required additional CSF diversion surgery. There was no statistical significance between ETVSS and the long-term full-scale IQ or shunt dependency (p = 0.34 and 0.12, respectively). The radiological improvement in ventricle size was not associated with better future educational outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

The ETVSS was correlated with the long-term success rate. After 15 months from the initial ETV, no patients required an additional CSF diversion procedure. The ETVSS was not considered to be correlated with long-term intellectual status.