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Ketan Verma, Anne H. Freelin, Kelsey A. Atkinson, Robert S. Graham, and William C. Broaddus

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to assess whether flat bed rest for > 24 hours after an incidental durotomy improves patient outcome or is a risk factor for medical and wound complications and longer hospital stay.

METHODS

Medical records of consecutive patients undergoing thoracic and lumbar decompression procedures from 2010 to 2020 were reviewed. Operative notes and progress notes were reviewed and searched to identify patients in whom incidental durotomies occurred. The need for revision surgery related to CSF leak or wound infection was recorded. The duration of bed rest, length of hospital stay, and complications (pulmonary, gastrointestinal, urinary, and wound) were recorded. The rates of complications were compared with regard to the duration of bed rest (≤ 24 hours vs > 24 hours).

RESULTS

A total of 420 incidental durotomies were identified, indicating a rate of 6.7% in the patient population. Of the 420 patients, 361 underwent primary repair of the dura; 254 patients were prescribed bed rest ≤ 24 hours, and 107 patients were prescribed bed rest > 24 hours. There was no statistically significant difference in the need for revision surgery (7.87% vs 8.41%, p = 0.86) between the two groups, but wound complications were increased in the prolonged bed rest group (8.66% vs 15.89%, p = 0.043). The average length of stay for patients with bed rest ≤ 24 hours was 4.47 ± 3.64 days versus 7.24 ± 4.23 days for patients with bed rest > 24 hours (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of ileus, urinary retention, urinary tract infections, pulmonary issues, and altered mental status in the group with prolonged bed rest after an incidental durotomy. The relative risk of complications in the group with bed rest ≤ 24 hours was 50% less than the group with > 24 hours of bed rest (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.39–0.62; p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this retrospective study, the rate of revision surgery was not higher in patients with durotomy who underwent immediate mobilization, and medical complications were significantly decreased. Flat bed rest > 24 hours following incidental durotomy was associated with increased length of stay and increased rate of medical complications. After primary repair of an incidental durotomy, flat bed rest may not be necessary and appears to be associated with higher costs and complications.

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Adel Azghadi, Megan M. Rajagopal, Kelsey A. Atkinson, and Kathryn L. Holloway

OBJECTIVE

Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of both the globus pallidus internus (GPI) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is superior to the best medical therapy. Tremor is particularly responsive to DBS, with reports of 70%–80% improvement. However, a small number of patients do not obtain the expected response with both STN and GPI targets. Indeed, the authors’ patient population had a similar 81.2% tremor reduction with a 9.6% failure rate. In an analysis of these failures, they identified patients with preoperative on-medication tremor who subsequently received a GPI lead as a subpopulation at higher risk for inadequate tremor control. Thereafter, STN DBS was recommended for patients with on-medication tremor. However, for the patients with symptoms and comorbidities that favored GPI as the target, dual GPI and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) leads were proposed. This report details outcomes for those patients.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of patients with PD who met the criteria for and underwent simultaneous GPI+VIM DBS surgery from 2015 to 2020 and had available follow-up data. The preoperative Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores were obtained with the study participants on and off their medication. Postoperatively, the GPI lead was kept on at baseline and scores were obtained with and without VIM stimulation.

RESULTS

Thirteen PD patients with significant residual preoperative tremor on medication underwent simultaneous GPI+VIM DBS surgery (11 unilateral, 2 bilateral). A mean 90.6% (SD 15.0%) reduction in tremor scores was achieved with dual GPI+VIM stimulation compared to a 21.8% (SD 71.9%) reduction with GPI stimulation alone and a 30.9% (SD 37.8%) reduction with medication. Although rigidity and bradykinesia reductions were accomplished with just GPI stimulation, 13 of the 15 hemispheres required VIM stimulation to achieve excellent tremor control.

CONCLUSIONS

GPI+VIM stimulation was required to adequately control tremor in all but 2 patients in this series, substantiating the authors’ hypothesis that, in their population, medication-resistant tremor does not completely respond to GPI stimulation. Dual stimulation of the GPI and VIM proved to be an effective option for the patients who had symptoms and comorbidities that favored GPI as a target and had medication-resistant tremor.