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Jeroen R. Coppens, Kelly B. Mahaney, and Saleem I. Abdulrauf

Object

The aim of this study was to define an anteromedial approach to the temporal horn via a transsylvian approach to avoid injury to the optic radiation fibers as well as the uncinate fasciculus. This route was compared with standard surgical approaches to the temporal horn, and their relationship to the optic radiation and uncinate fasciculus was reviewed.

Methods

Three cadaveric brain specimens were prepared with freezing and thawing cycles according to the Klingler technique. Dissection was performed in a lateral-to-medial fashion with the help of wooden spatulas. Photographs were taken through the operating microscope at every level of the dissection. The dissection was continued until the optic radiation was encountered. Particular attention was paid to the relationship of the uncinate fasciculus with the optic radiation. An anteromedial transsylvian approach was defined to enter the temporal horn without injuring the optic radiation or the uncinate fasciculus.

Conclusions

A transsylvian anteromedial approach through the pyriform cortex at the level of the anterior and superior surface of the uncus enables a safe entry into the temporal horn without injury to the optic radiation fibers or the main part of the uncinate fasciculus.

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Andrew J. Grossbach, Kelly B. Mahaney, and Arnold H. Menezes

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas are relatively common, typically benign neoplasms in adults; however, they are relatively rare in the pediatric population. Pediatric meningiomas behave very differently from their adult counterparts, tending to have more malignant histological subtypes and recur more frequently. The authors of this paper investigate the risk factors, pathological subtypes, and recurrence rates of pediatric meningiomas.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was conducted at the University of Iowa to identify patients 20 years old and younger with meningiomas in the period from 1948 to 2015.

RESULTS

Sixty-seven meningiomas in 39 patients were identified. Eight patients had neurofibromatosis, 2 had a family history of meningioma, and 3 had prior radiation exposure. Twelve (31%) of the 39 patients had WHO Grade II or III lesions, and 15 (38%) had recurrent lesions after resection.

CONCLUSIONS

Pediatric meningiomas should be considered for early treatment and diligent follow-up.

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Giuseppe Lanzino

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Kelly B. Mahaney and Arnold H. Menezes

An intradiploic CSF pseudocyst is a rare entity that has been described in association with trauma, as a sequela of untreated hydrocephalus, or occasionally as a congenital finding in older adults. The authors present the case of a woman with a remote history of a posterior fossa intradural procedure, in which she underwent Chiari malformation decompression, Silastic substitute–assisted duraplasty, and occipitocervical fusion; she presented 19 years later with recurrent symptoms of Chiari malformation. She was found to have an occipital intradiploic pseudomeningocele, arising within her dorsal occipitocervical fusion mass and resulting in dorsal hindbrain compression. She underwent a posterior fossa decompression and revision of her failed duraplasty, and she had a good recovery. This case demonstrates intradiploic CSF pseudomeningocele as a rare potential delayed complication of an intradural procedure for the treatment of Chiari malformation with occipitocervical fusion.

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Kelly B. Mahaney, Michael M. Todd, Emine O. Bayman, and James C. Torner

Object

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant morbidity and mortality, even among patients who reach medical attention in good neurological condition. Many patients have neurological decline in the perioperative period, which contributes to long-term outcomes. The focus of this study is to characterize the incidence of, characteristics predictive of, and outcomes associated with acute postoperative neurological deterioration in patients undergoing surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

Methods

The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST) was a multicenter randomized clinical trial that enrolled 1001 patients and assesssed the efficacy of hypothermia as neuroprotection during surgery to secure a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. All patients had a radiographically confirmed SAH, were classified as World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grade I–III immediately prior to surgery, and underwent surgery to secure the ruptured aneurysm within 14 days of SAH. Neurological assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed preoperatively, at 24 and 72 hours postoperatively, and at time of discharge. The primary outcome variable was a dichotomized scoring based on an IHAST version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in which a score of 1 represents a good outcome and a score > 1 a poor outcome, as assessed at 90-days' follow-up. Data from IHAST were analyzed for occurrence of a postoperative neurological deterioration. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were assessed for associations with occurrence of postoperative neurological deterioration. Differences in baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative variables and in outcomes between patients with and without postoperative neurological deterioration were compared with Fisher exact tests. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare variables reported as means. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates associated with occurrence of postoperative deficit.

Results

Acute postoperative neurological deterioration was observed in 42.6% of the patients. New focal motor deficit accounted for 65% of postoperative neurological deterioration, while 60% was accounted for using the NIHSS total score change and 51% by Glasgow Coma Scale score change. Factors significantly associated with occurrence of postoperative neurological deterioration included: age, Fisher grade on admission, occurrence of a procedure prior to aneurysm surgery (ventriculostomy), timing of surgery, systolic blood pressure during surgery, ST segment depression during surgery, history of abnormality in cardiac valve function, use of intentional hypotension during surgery, duration of anterior cerebral artery occlusion, intraoperative blood loss, and difficulty of aneurysm exposure. Of the 426 patients with postoperative neurological deterioration at 24 hours after surgery, only 46.2% had a good outcome (GOS score of 1) at 3 months, while 77.7% of those without postoperative neurological deterioration at 24 hours had a good outcome (p < 0.05)

Conclusions

Neurological injury incurred perioperatively or in the acute postoperative period accounts for a large percentage of poor outcomes in patients with good admission WFNS grades undergoing surgery for aneurysmal SAH. Avoiding surgical factors associated with postoperative neurological deterioration and directing investigative efforts at developing improved neuroprotection for use in aneurysm surgery may significantly improve long-term neurological outcomes in patients with SAH.

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Kelly B. Mahaney, Michael M. Todd, and James C. Torner

Object

The past 30 years have seen a shift in the timing of surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Earlier practices of delayed surgery that were intended to avoid less favorable surgical conditions have been replaced by a trend toward early surgery to minimize the risks associated with rebleeding and vasospasm. Yet, a consensus as to the optimal timing of surgery has not been reached. The authors hypothesized that earlier surgery, performed using contemporary neurosurgical and neuroanesthesia techniques, would be associated with better outcomes when using contemporary management practices, and sought to define the optimal time interval between SAH and surgery.

Methods

Data collected as part of the Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST) were analyzed to investigate the relationship between timing of surgery and outcome at 3 months post-SAH. The IHAST enrolled 1001 patients in 30 neurosurgical centers between February 2000 and April 2003. All patients had a radiographically confirmed SAH, were World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grades I–III at the time of surgery, and underwent surgical clipping of the presumed culprit aneurysm within 14 days of the date of hemorrhage. Patients were seen at 90-day follow-up visits. The primary outcome variable was a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1 (good outcome). Intergroup differences in baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were compared using the Fisher exact tests. Variables reported as means were compared with ANOVA. Multiple logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, adjusting for covariates. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results

Patients who underwent surgery on Days 1 or 2 (early) or Days 7–14 (late) (Day 0 = date of SAH) fared better than patients who underwent surgery on Days 3–6 (intermediate). Specifically, the worst outcomes were observed in patients who underwent surgery on Days 3 and 4. Patients who had hydrocephalus or Fisher Grade 3 or 4 on admission head CT scans had better outcomes with early surgery than with intermediate or late surgery.

Conclusions

Early surgery, in good-grade patients within 48 hours of SAH, is associated with better outcomes than surgery performed in the 3- to 6-day posthemorrhage interval. Surgical treatment for aneurysmal SAH may be more hazardous during the 3- to 6-day interval, but this should be weighed against the risk of rebleeding.

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Thomas Gaberel and Evelyne Emery

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James K. Liu, Kelly Mahaney, Stanley L. Barnwell, Sean O. McMenomey, and Johnny B. Delashaw Jr.

The anterior condylar confluence (ACC) is located on the external orifice of the canal of the hypoglossal nerve and provides multiple connections with the dural venous sinuses of the posterior fossa, internal jugular vein, and the vertebral venous plexus. Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the ACC and hypoglossal canal (anterior condylar vein) are extremely rare. The authors present a case involving an ACC DAVF and hypoglossal canal that mimicked a hypervascular jugular bulb tumor.

This 53-year-old man presented with right hypoglossal nerve palsy. A right pulsatile tinnitus had resolved several months previously. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enhancing right-sided jugular foramen lesion involving the hypoglossal canal. Cerebral angiography revealed a hypervascular lesion at the jugular bulb, with early venous drainage into the extracranial vertebral venous plexus. This was thought to represent either a glomus jugulare tumor or a DAVF.

The patient underwent preoperative transarterial embolization followed by surgical exploration via a far-lateral transcondylar approach. At surgery, a DAVF was identified draining into the ACC and hypoglossal canal. The fistula was surgically obliterated, and this was confirmed on postoperative angiography. The patient's hypoglossal nerve palsy resolved.

Dural arteriovenous fistulas of the ACC and hypoglossal canal are rare lesions that can present with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsies. They should be included in the differential diagnosis of hypervascular jugular bulb lesions. The authors review the anatomy of the ACC and discuss the literature on DAVFs involving the hypoglossal canal.

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Raheel Ahmed, Arnold H. Menezes, Olatilewa O. Awe, Kelly B. Mahaney, James C. Torner, and Stuart L. Weinstein

Object

Spinal deformity in pediatric patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) may be either due to neurogenic disability or due to secondary effects of spinal decompression. It is associated with functional decline and impairment in health-related quality-of-life measures. The authors sought to identify the long-term incidence of spinal deformity in individuals who had undergone surgery for IMSCTs as pediatric patients and the risk factors and overall outcomes in this population.

Methods

Treatment records for pediatric patients (age < 21 years) who underwent surgical treatment for histology-proven primary IMSCTs between 1975 and 2010 were reviewed. All patients were evaluated in consultation with the pediatric orthopedics service. Clinical records were reviewed for baseline and follow-up imaging studies, surgical fusion treatment, and long-term skeletal and disease outcomes.

Results

The authors identified 55 patients (30 males and 25 females) who were treated for pediatric IMSCTs between January 1975 and January 2010. The mean duration of follow-up (± SEM) was 11.4 ± 1.3 years (median 9.3 years, range 0.2–37.2 years). Preoperative skeletal deformity was diagnosed in 11 (20%) of the 55 patients, and new-onset postoperative deformity was noted in 9 (16%). Conservative management with observation or external bracing was sufficient in 8 (40%) of these 20 cases. Surgical fusion was necessary in 11 (55%). Posterior surgical fusion was sufficient in 6 (55%) of these 11 cases, while combined anterior and posterior fusion was undertaken in 5 (45%). Univariate and multivariate analysis of clinical and surgical treatment variables indicated that preoperative kyphoscoliosis (p = 0.0032) and laminectomy/laminoplasty at more than 4 levels (p = 0.05) were independently associated with development of spinal deformity that necessitated surgical fusion. Functional scores and 10-year disease survival outcomes were similar between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

Long-term follow-up is essential to monitor for delayed development of spinal deformity, and regular surveillance imaging is recommended for patients with underlying deformity. The authors' extended follow-up highlights the risk factors associated with development of spinal deformity in patients treated for pediatric IMSCTs. Surgical fusion allows patients who develop progressive deformity to achieve long-term functional and survival outcomes comparable to those of patients who do not develop progressive deformity.