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Michael D. Staudt, Holger Joswig, Gwynedd E. Pickett, Keith W. MacDougall, and Andrew G. Parrent

OBJECTIVE

The prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS-TN) is higher than in the general population (idiopathic TN [ITN]). Glycerol rhizotomy (GR) is a percutaneous lesioning surgery commonly performed for the treatment of medically refractory TN. While treatment for acute pain relief is excellent, long-term pain relief is poorer. The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of percutaneous retrogasserian GR for the treatment of MS-TN versus ITN.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed, identifying 219 patients who had undergone 401 GR procedures from 1983 to 2018 at a single academic institution. All patients were diagnosed with medically refractory MS-TN (182 procedures) or ITN (219 procedures). The primary outcome measures of interest were immediate pain relief and time to pain recurrence following initial and repeat GR procedures. Secondary outcomes included medication usage and presence of periprocedural hypesthesia.

RESULTS

The initial pain-free response rate was similar between groups (p = 0.726): MS-TN initial GR 89.6%; MS-TN repeat GR 91.9%; ITN initial GR 89.6%; ITN repeat GR 87.0%. The median time to recurrence after initial GR was similar between MS-TN (2.7 ± 1.3 years) and ITN (2.1 ± 0.6 years) patients (p = 0.87). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the time to recurrence after repeat GR between MS-TN (2.3 ± 0.5 years) and ITN patients (1.2 ± 0.2 years; p < 0.05). The presence of periprocedural hypesthesia was highly predictive of pain-free survival (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with MS-TN achieve meaningful pain relief following GR, with an efficacy comparable to that following GR in patients with ITN. Initial and subsequent GR procedures are equally efficacious.

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Holger Joswig, Chloe Gui, Miguel Arango, Andrew G. Parrent, Keith W. MacDougall, Jorge G. Burneo, and David A. Steven

OBJECTIVE

Changes of dream ability and content in patients with brain lesions have been addressed in only about 100 case reports. All of these reports lack data regarding prelesional baseline dream content. Therefore, it was the objective of this study to prospectively assess dream content before and after anterior temporal lobectomy.

METHODS

Using the Hall and Van de Castle system, 30 dreams before and 21 dreams after anterior temporal lobectomy for drug-resistant epilepsy were analyzed. Fifty-five dreams before and 60 dreams after stereoelectroencephalography served as controls.

RESULTS

After anterior temporal lobectomy, patients had significantly less physical aggression in their dreams than preoperatively (p < 0.01, Cohen’s h statistic). Dream content of patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography showed no significant changes.

CONCLUSIONS

Within the default dream network, the temporal lobe may account for aggressive dream content. Impact of general anesthesia on dream content, as a possible confounder, was ruled out.

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Juan S. Bottan, Ana Suller Marti, Jorge G. Burneo, Andrew G. Parrent, Keith W. MacDougall, Richard S. McLachlan, Seyed Mirsattari, David C. Diosy, and David A. Steven

OBJECTIVE

Epilepsy surgery for older adults is controversial owing to their longer duration of epilepsy and perceived higher surgical risk. However, because of an aging population and documented benefit of epilepsy surgery, surgery is considered more frequently for these patients. The authors’ objective was to analyze the role of resective surgery in patients older than 60 years and to assess outcomes and safety.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 595 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery at their center from 1999 to 2018. Thirty-one patients aged 60 years or older were identified. Sixty patients younger than 60 years were randomly selected as controls. Population characteristics, results of presurgical evaluations, outcomes, and complications were analyzed.

RESULTS

No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of hemisphere dominance, side of surgery, presence of a lesion, and incidence of temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy duration was greater in the older cohort (p = 0.019), and invasive EEG was more commonly employed in younger patients (p = 0.030). The rates of Engel class I outcome at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 89.7%, 96.2%, and 94.7% for the older group and 75% (p = 0.159), 67.3% (p = 0.004), and 75.8% (p = 0.130) for the younger group, respectively. The proportion of seizure-free patients was greatest among those with temporal lobe epilepsy, particularly in the older group. Neurological complication rates did not differ significantly between groups, however medical and other minor complications occurred more frequently in the older group.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients older than 60 years had equal or better outcomes at 1 year after epilepsy surgery than younger patients. A trend toward a greater proportion of patients with lesional temporal lobe epilepsy was found in the older group. These results suggest that good seizure outcomes can be obtained in older patients despite longer duration of epilepsy.