Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Keith E. Friend x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Keith E. Friend, Robert Radinsky and Ian E. McCutcheon

Object. This study was undertaken to explore the effects of growth hormone (GH) and the GH-stimulated peptide insulin-like growth factor—1 (IGF-1) on the growth rate of meningiomas.

Methods. Polymerase chain reaction and ribonuclease protection assays were used to demonstrate that GH receptor messenger RNA was present in all 14 meningioma specimens studied, regardless of tumor grade. Both wild type (GHRwt) and a previously described exon 3 deletion isoform (GHRd3) of the GH receptor were identified in individual tumor specimens. The importance of the GH receptor was assessed using a GH receptor antagonist (B2036). Blockade of the GH receptor with B2036 reduced serum-induced DNA synthesis, as measured by thymidine incorporation, by 8 to 33% (mean 20%) in primary meningioma cultures. Tumors that expressed the GHRwt and GHRd3 isoforms, or a combination of the two, were all responsive to antagonist treatment. The importance of IGF-1 in stimulating meningioma cell growth was also assessed. It was found that IGF-1 increased thymidine incorporation in primary meningioma cultures in a dose-dependent manner: 1 ng/ml, 5 ng/ml, and 10 ng/ml resulted in increases in thymidine incorporation of 21%, 43%, and 176%, respectively, over baseline values.

Conclusions. In these studies the authors demonstrate that activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis significantly increases the growth rate of meningiomas. Blockade of the GH receptor on tumor cells inhibited tumor growth. If these findings are confirmed in animal studies, agents that downregulate the GH/IGF-1 axis might represent a potential adjuvant therapy in the management of patients with meningioma.

Restricted access

Ian E. McCutcheon, Keith E. Friend, Tammy M. Gerdes, Bing-Mei Zhang, David M. Wildrick and Gregory N. Fuller

Object. Although human meningioma cells have been heterotopically implanted in nude mice, introducing these cells into intracranial locations seems more likely to reproduce normal patterns of tumor growth. To provide an orthotopic xenograft model of meningioma, the authors implanted a controlled quantity of meningioma cells at subdural and intracerebral sites in athymic mice.

Methods. Malignant (one tumor), atypical (two tumors), or benign (three tumors) meningiomas were placed into primary cell cultures. Cells (106/10 µl) from these cultures and from an immortalized malignant meningioma cell line, IOMM-Lee, were injected with stereotactic guidance into the frontal white matter or subdural space of athymic mice. Survival curves were plotted for mice receiving tumor cells of each histological type and according to injection site. Other mice were killed at intervals and their heads were sectioned whole. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of these sections revealed the extent of tumor growth.

Conclusions. The median length of survival for mice with malignant, atypical, or benign tumors was 19, 42, or longer than 84 days, respectively. Atypical and malignant tumors were invasive, but did not metastasize extracranially. Malignant tumors uniformly showed leptomeningeal dissemination and those implanted intracerebrally grew locally and spread noncontiguously to the ventricles, choroid plexus, convexities, and skull base. Tumors formed in only 50% of mice injected with benign meningioma cells, whereas injection of more aggressive cells was uniformly successful at tumor production. The three types of human meningiomas grown intracranially in athymic mice maintained their relative positions in the spectrum of malignancy. However, atypical meningiomas became more aggressive after xenografting and acquired malignant features, implying that there had been immune constraint in the original host. Tumor cells injected into brain parenchyma migrated to more optimal environments and grew best there. This model provides insights into the biology of meningiomas and may be useful for testing new therapies.

Restricted access

Ian E. McCutcheon, Allan Flyvbjerg, Holly Hill, Jessica Li, William F. Bennett, John A. Scarlett and Keith E. Friend

Object. The authors have previously demonstrated that modulation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis can significantly affect meningioma growth in vitro. These studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of GH receptor blockade in vivo.

Methods. Primary cultures from 15 meningioma tumors obtained in humans were xenografted into athymic mice. Approximately 1.5 million cells from each of the 15 tumors were implanted into the flanks of two female mice, one pair for each tumor. One animal from each of the 15 pairs was then treated with the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant and the other with vehicle alone for 8 weeks. The tumor volume was measured using digital calipers three times per week. The mean tumor volume at the initiation of injections was 284 ± 18.8 mm3 in the vehicle group and 291.1 ± 20 mm3 in the pegvisomant group. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean volume of tumors in the pegvisomant group was 198.3 ± 18.9 mm3 compared with 350.1 ± 23.5 mm3 for the vehicle group (p < 0.001). The serum IGF-I concentration in the vehicle group was 319 ± 12.9 µg/L compared with 257 ± 9.7 in the pegvisomant group (p < 0.02). A small but significant decrease was observed in circulating IGF binding protein (IGFBP)—3 levels, whereas slight increases occurred with respect to serum IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-4 levels. In the placebo group the tumor weight was 0.092 ± 0.01 g compared with 0.057 ± 0.01 g in the pegvisomant group (p < 0.02). The IGF-I and IGF-II concentrations were measured in the tumors by using a tissue extraction method. These human-specific immunoassays demonstrated that there was no autocrine production of IGF-I in any of the tumors, either in the pegvisomant or vehicle group. The IGF-II levels were highly variable (0–38.2 ng/g tissue) and did not differ significantly between treatment groups.

Conclusions. In an in vivo tumor model, downregulation of the GH/IGF-I axis significantly reduces meningioma growth and, in some instances, causes tumor regression. Because the concentrations of IGF-II in tumor did not vary with pegvisomant treatment and there was no autocrine IGF-I production by the tumors, the mechanism of the antitumor effect is most likely a decrease of IGF-I in the circulation and/or surrounding host tissues. Because the authors have previously demonstrated that the GH receptor is ubiquitously expressed in meningiomas, direct blockade of the GH receptor on the tumors may also be contributing to inhibitory actions.