✓ Between June, 1961, and September, 1975, the authors operated on 60 patients with aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery distal to the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) by a direct intracranial approach. It is of utmost importance in the treatment of aneurysms to have control of the parent artery of the aneurysm. This makes it easier and safer to approach the aneurysm neck and to handle possible premature aneurysm rupture. The aneurysms were classified into two types, ascending and horizontal. Aneurysms arising from the origin of the ACoA and including the entire portion of the knee of the corpus callosum were designated as aneurysms of the ascending portion, whereas aneurysms beyond the genu were designated as aneurysms of the horizontal portion. For aneurysms of the ascending portion, bifrontal craniotomy was considered the safest approach. For aneurysms of the horizontal portion, a small parasagittal craniotomy was determined to be sufficient.
Takashi Yoshimoto, Keita Uchida, and Jiro Suzuki
Takashi Yoshimoto, Keita Uchida, Uichi Kaneko, Takamasa Kayama, and Jiro Suzuki
✓ The authors report a follow-up review of 1000 cases of intracranial definitive surgery for saccular aneurysms. The prognosis for such surgical cases is discussed. Postoperative results at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital were analyzed in 876 (93.3%) of the 939 surviving patients. The longest follow-up period was 14 years and 5 months, with an average of 3 years and 7 months. At the time of discharge, there were 543 excellent results, 186 good, 117 fair, 93 poor, and 61 deaths. The chief findings were as follows: 1) Most of the patients determined as “excellent” or “good” at discharge were able to return to normal life; most of the deaths or instances of worsened condition found in the follow-up study were due to new lesions. 2) Fully 62% of the cases determined as “fair” at discharge were found in an improved state at the follow-up study, having returned to normal life. 3) Only 19% of cases determined as “poor” at discharge had improved to the point where a return to normal life was possible, the majority having died or remaining in poor condition.
Tao Yang, Kazumichi Yoshida, Takakuni Maki, Yasutaka Fushimi, Kiyofumi Yamada, Masakazu Okawa, Yu Yamamoto, Naoki Takayama, Keita Suzuki, and Susumu Miyamoto
Carotid webs (CWs) have increasingly been recognized as a cause of recurrent ischemic stroke. However, the natural history and clinical course of CWs remain unclear. The authors aimed to clarify the prevalence, imaging features, and optimal treatment of CWs in a Japanese cohort study.
A series of 444 consecutive Japanese patients who had undergone CTA of the head and neck between April 2011 and October 2016 was retrospectively reviewed. CW was diagnosed on CT angiograms as a membrane-like intraluminal filling defect along the posterior wall of the carotid bulb or the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) on oblique sagittal images and a corresponding thin septum on axial images.
Two patients with CWs were identified among 132 patients with suspected stroke. The prevalence of CWs among symptomatic patients with suspected stroke was 1.5%. The prevalence of asymptomatic CWs was 2.2% (7 of 312 cases). The CWs were located in the posterior wall of the carotid bulb in 7 patients and just distal to the ICA origin in 2 patients. There were no apparent differences in the location or lesion length between symptomatic and asymptomatic CWs. Four of the 7 asymptomatic CWs remained asymptomatic for at least 2 years of follow-up. Two patients with symptomatic CWs developed recurrent cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attack despite being on a regimen of oral antiplatelet agents, and carotid endarterectomy was performed as radical treatment. Patients with CWs were younger than controls (median age 55 vs 69 years, p = 0.003) and were less frequently male than controls (33% vs 72%, p = 0.025). CW cases showed significantly fewer common atherosclerosis risk factors than the control group (p < 0.05).
Although limited to CTA patients, this study reported on the prevalence and common site of CWs, focusing on symptomatic and asymptomatic Japanese patients. Extensive cross-sectional and prospective observational studies are warranted to elucidate the overall prevalence and natural history of CWs.
Shoichi Tani, Hirotoshi Imamura, Katsunori Asai, Kampei Shimizu, Hidemitsu Adachi, So Tokunaga, Takayuki Funatsu, Keita Suzuki, Hiromasa Adachi, Shuhei Kawabata, Yuichi Matsui, Natsuhi Sasaki, Ryo Akiyama, Kazufumi Horiuchi, Chiaki Sakai, and Nobuyuki Sakai
The authors sought to compare methods of measurement for venous phase delay (VPD) or mean stump pressure (MSTP) to rank their potential to predict ischemic tolerance during balloon test occlusion in the internal carotid artery, exploring a more correlative and convenient way to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) that could be utilized even in the acute phase or in institutions not adequately equipped to measure CBF during the test.
X-ray angiography perfusion analysis using diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment enables 1-step examination (without any room-to-room transfer of patients) to measure CBF, VPD, and MSTP completely simultaneously, which has not been accomplished by any previous perfusion studies.
This analysis was applied to 17 patients and resulted in successful estimation of all 3 parameters in each case. The average VPD of several cortical veins had a strong correlation with relative CBF (rCBF) between bilateral hemispheres with a correlation coefficient of 0.89443, a correlation as strong as that (0.90357) of the “approximate VPD,” which is interpreted based on the trend line of the scatterplot of the time to peak contrast opacification in cortical veins and their spatial positioning from the median sagittal plane. MSTP and classic visual determination of VPD have weaker correlation coefficients with rCBF (0.56119 and 0.70048, respectively). Overall, subjective visual determination in combination with the calculation of the trend line to estimate VPD provided a considerably strong correlation with rCBF (R = 0.86660) without any dedicated software or hardware.
VPD has a stronger correlation with rCBF than MSTP. rCBF could be successfully predicted on common DSA equipment, even by visual determination without expensive software, if the trend line is adopted for processing to estimate VPD.