✓ A biomembrane was developed from pig peritoneum treated with 0.65% glutaraldehyde. This was evaluated for use as a dural substitute in an animal model and in a patient population. After being treated with the glutaraldehyde solution, the biomembrane lost its antigenicity while its collagen underwent an irreversible cross-linking reaction, causing it to become a stable nonviable polymer resistant to absorption by the host. The biomembrane was used experimentally in 43 procedures on 20 dogs and was applied clinically in 614 patients. The results demonstrated that it is an acceptable material for the repair of dural defects, with the following advantages: 1) it is nontoxic to the body and brain tissues, with minimal tissue reaction; 2) its biophysical properties facilitate watertight closure with sutures; 3) its distensibility makes it suitable for decompressive surgical dural repair; and 4) its visceral surface is extremely smooth, causing virtually no adhesions with the brain tissue while the outer surface readily heals with the subcutaneous tissue.
Xu Bang-Zong, Pan Hong-Xue, Li Ke-Ming, Chen Xi-Jin, Tian Ying-Dei, Li Yong-Lin and Liu Jian
Juxiang Wang, Ke Li, Hongjia Li, Chengyi Ji, Ziyao Wu, Huimin Chen and Bin Chen
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) results in enlarged optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). In this study the authors aimed to assess the association of ONSD and ICP in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) after decompressive craniotomy (DC).
ONSDs were measured by ocular ultrasonography in 40 healthy control adults. ICPs were monitored invasively with a microsensor at 6 hours and 24 hours after DC operation in 35 TBI patients. ONSDs were measured at the same time in these patients. Patients were assigned to 3 groups according to ICP levels, including normal (ICP ≤ 13 mm Hg), mildly elevated (ICP = 14–22 mm Hg), and severely elevated (ICP > 22 mm Hg) groups. ONSDs were compared between healthy control adults and TBI cases with DC. Then, the association of ONSD with ICP was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, linear regression analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curves.
Seventy ICP measurements were obtained among 35 TBI patients after DC, including 25, 27, and 18 measurements in the normal, mildly elevated, and severely elevated ICP groups, respectively. Mean ONSDs were 4.09 ± 0.38 mm in the control group and 4.92 ± 0.37, 5.77 ± 0.41, and 6.52 ± 0.44 mm in the normal, mildly elevated, and severely elevated ICP groups, respectively (p < 0.001). A significant linear correlation was found between ONSD and ICP (r = 0.771, p < 0.0001). Enlarged ONSD was a robust predictor of elevated ICP. With an ONSD cutoff of 5.48 mm (ICP > 13 mm Hg), sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 88.0%, respectively; a cutoff of 5.83 mm (ICP > 22 mm Hg) yielded sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 81.0%, respectively.
Ultrasonographic ONSD is strongly correlated with invasive ICP measurements and may serve as a sensitive and noninvasive method for detecting elevated ICP in TBI patients after DC.
Li-ming Guan, Xi-Xun Qi, Bin Xia, Zhen-hua Li, Yu Zhao and Ke Xu
In this paper, the authors' aim was to use CT perfusion imaging to evaluate the early changes in tumor microcirculation following radiosurgery in rat C6 brain gliomas.
C6 glioma cells were inoculated into the right caudate nucleus of 25 Wistar rats using a stereotactic procedure. Tumor-bearing rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (tumor group and treatment group). Rats in the treatment group received maximal doses of 20 Gy delivered by the X-knife unit 16 days postimplantation. Computed tomography perfusion imaging was performed in all rats 3 weeks after tumor implantation prior to death and histopathological analysis.
Hypocellular regions and tumor edema were increased in the treatment group compared with the tumor group. Parameters of CT perfusion imaging including cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) of the tumors as well as the permeability surface area (PSA) product in the tumor-brain districts were decreased in the treatment group compared with the tumor group (p < 0.05). Although microvascular density (MVD) in the periphery of the tumors in the treatment group was higher than that in the normal contralateral brain (p < 0.05), MVD of the tumors in the treatment group was less than that in the tumor group (p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and MVD as well as CBV and MVD in the center and periphery of tumors in both groups (p < 0.05).
A decrease in the perfusion volume of rat C6 brain gliomas was observed during the acute stage following X-knife treatment, and CBF and CBV were positively correlated with MVD of rat C6 brain gliomas. Thus, CT perfusion imaging can be used to evaluate the early changes in tumor microcirculation following radiosurgery.
Liang Wang, Zhen Wu, Kaibing Tian, Ke Wang, Da Li, Junpeng Ma, Guijun Jia, Liwei Zhang and Junting Zhang
Skull base chordoma is relatively rare, and a limited number of reports have been published regarding its clinical features. Moreover, the factors associated with extent of resection, as well as the value of marginal resection for long-term survival, are still in question for this disease. The objective of this study was to investigate these factors by evaluating their clinical features and surgical outcomes.
A retrospective analysis of 238 patients with skull base chordomas, who met the inclusion criteria, was performed. This study summarized the clinical features, selection of approaches, degree of resection, and postoperative complications by statistical description analyses; proposed modified classifications of tumor location and bone invasion; studied the contributions of the clinical and radiological factors to the extent of resection by Pearson χ2, ANOVA, rank test, and binary logistic regression analysis; and estimated the differences in overall survival and progression-free survival rates with respect to therapeutic history, classification of tumor location, extent of bone invasion, and extent of tumor resection by the Kaplan-Meier method. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The study included 140 male and 98 female patients with a mean age of 38.1 years. Headache and neck pain (33.2%) and diplopia (29%) were the most common initial symptoms. Sphenoclival type accounted for the largest proportion of tumor location (59.2%); endophytic chordoma was the more common type of bone invasion (81.5%). Lateral open approaches were performed in two-thirds of the study population (78.6%). The rate of marginal resection was 66%, composed of gross-total resection (11.8%) and near-total resection (54.2%). Meningitis (8%) and CSF leakage (3.8%) were the most frequent complications. The mean follow-up period was 43.7 months. The overall survival and progression-free survival rates at 5 years were 76% and 45%, respectively. Recurrent tumor and larger tumor volume (≥ 40 cm3) were identified as risk factors of marginal resection. Patients who presented with recurrent tumor and underwent intralesional resection had a worse long-term outcome.
The classifications of both tumor location and bone invasion demonstrated clinical value. Marginal resection was more likely to be achieved for primary lesions with smaller volumes (< 40 cm3). The rate of CSF leakage declined due to improved dura mater repair with free fat grafts. Marginal resection, or gross-total resection when possible, should be performed in patients with primary chordomas to achieve better long-term survival.