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Bungo Otsuki, Mitsuru Takemoto, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Kazutaka Masamoto and Shuichi Matsuda

Several articles have described the use of screw insertion guides during primary spine surgery; however, the use of such a guide during revision surgeries has not been described. The purpose of this study is to describe the utility of a custom screw insertion (CSI) guide assembled using a novel method and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster (FCTP) model for safe and accurate revision surgery.

The authors applied the CSI guide and the FCTP model in 3 cases. In the first case, a patient with multiple failed cervical spine surgeries underwent occipitocervicothoracic fusion. After a successful result for this patient, the authors applied the CSI guide in 2 other patients who underwent revision lumbar fusion surgeries to confirm the accuracy and the efficacy of the CSI guides in such cases. The models and guides were fabricated using rapid prototyping technology. The effectiveness of these methods was examined.

The FCTP model was designed using CT data. During model assembly, implants inserted during previous surgery were removed virtually, and for the cervical spine, vertebral arteries were colored red for planning. The CSI guide was designed with 5 or 6 arms to fit the bone surface precisely after removing artifacts. Surgery was performed by referring to the FCTP model. Because the actual structure of the bone surface was almost identical to that of the FCTP model, surgical exposure around the complex bone shape proceeded smoothly. The CSI guides were positioned accurately to aid the successful insertion of a pedicle screw into the C-2 vertebra in the case of cervical revision surgery, and 4 pedicle screws for lumbar vertebrae in the 2 other patients. Postoperative CT scans showed that all screw positions closely matched those predicted during the preoperative planning. In conclusion, the FCTP models and the novel CSI guides were effective for safe and accurate revision surgery of the spine.

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Koichi Murata, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Takayoshi Shimizu, Kazutaka Masamoto and Shuichi Matsuda


In this study the authors aimed to evaluate the rate of malposition, including pedicle breach and superior facet violation, after percutaneous insertion of pedicle screws using the coaxial fluoroscopic view of the pedicle, and to assess the risk factors for pedicle breach.


In total, 394 percutaneous screws placed in 85 patients using the coaxial fluoroscopic view of the pedicle between January 2014 and September 2017 were assessed, and 445 pedicle screws inserted in 116 patients using conventional open procedures were used for reference. Pedicle breach and superior facet violation were evaluated by postoperative 0.4-mm slice CT.


Superior facet violation was observed in 0.5% of the percutaneous screws and 1.8% of the conventionally inserted screws. Pedicle breach occurred more frequently with percutaneous screws (28.9%) than with conventionally inserted screws (11.9%). The breaches in percutaneous screws were minor and did not reduce the interbody fusion rate. The angle difference between the percutaneous and conventionally inserted screws was comparable. Insertion at the L3 or L4 level, right-sided insertion, placement around a trefoil canal, smaller pedicle angle, and a small difference between the screw and pedicle diameters were found to be risk factors for pedicle breach by percutaneous pedicle screws.


Percutaneous pedicle screw placement using the coaxial fluoroscopic view of the pedicle carries a low risk of superior facet violation. The screws should be placed carefully considering the level and side of insertion, canal shape, and pedicle angle.