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Bifrontal interhemispheric approach to aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery

Jiro Suzuki, Kazuo Mizoi, and Takashi Yoshimoto

✓ The authors review their experience with the bifrontal interhemispheric approach in 603 cases of single anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms and describe the operative technique. With this approach, the olfactory tracts are dissected, and both A1 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries are identified subfrontally. The interhemispheric fissure is then dissected and A2segments are followed from the distal portion toward the ACoA complex. Following the administration of a combination of mannitol, vitamin E, and dexamethasone, a temporary clip is placed on at least the dominant A1 segment prior to dissection of the aneurysm itself. Once the aneurysm has been completely freed from the surrounding structures, the neck is ligated and clipped. If the aneurysm ruptures during surgery, temporary clips are placed on both A1 and A2 segments bilaterally and the operation proceeds in a completely dry field. With this method, it is possible to occlude any of the intracranial vessels for up to 40 minutes within 100 minutes of drug administration.

To prevent the possibility of rerupture and the development of vasospasm in the period before aneurysm surgery, the authors have adopted a policy of performing ultra-early operations within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Among the 257 cases operated on during the 9 years since 1975, one-fifth have been operated on within 48 hours of rupture, and the in-hospital mortality rate has been only 4.3% (11 cases). Follow-up studies have shown that 87% of the 246 surviving patients have returned to useful lives.

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Early cerebral angiography after aneurysm rupture

Analysis of 197 cases

Masaharu Amagasa, Takashi Yoshimoto, Kazuo Mizoi, and Jiro Suzuki

✓ Although many patients with aneurysm rupture have undergone re-rupture during angiography, this event seldom occurs in the early period after the original hemorrhage. The authors review 197 cases of ruptured cerebral aneurysms that had received cerebral angiography within 1 week of rupture. With the exception of one case of re-rupture during angiography, no complications were noted in any of the patients. The criteria used for early cerebral angiography after aneurysm rupture are described.

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Preservation of the olfactory tract in bifrontal craniotomy for anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and the functional prognosis

Jiro Suzuki, Takashi Yoshimoto, and Kazuo Mizoi

✓ Results of surgical treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms, approached via bifrontal craniotomy, are reported in 110 cases. It was possible to preserve the olfactory tracts bilaterally or unilaterally in over 65% of these cases: 47% with bilateral preservation and 34% with unilateral preservation; 33% of the patients with bilateral olfactory tract damage reported subjectively normal olfaction. Objective examination of olfaction by an otolaryngologist showed that 84% of the patients reporting normal olfaction did indeed have normal olfaction, whereas 91% of these reporting no olfaction were anosmic.

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Direct clipping of basilar trunk aneurysms using temporary balloon occlusion

Kazuo Mizoi, Takashi Yoshimoto, Akira Takahashi, and Akira Ogawa

✓ In the surgical treatment of basilar trunk aneurysms, there is still considerable technical difficulty in gaining both proximal artery control and a sufficient operative field. The authors describe their experience in five patients with basilar trunk aneurysms treated using temporary balloon occlusion and intraoperative digital subtraction angiography. With the patient under general anesthesia, a heparinized angiography catheter was guided into the dominant vertebral artery by means of the Seldinger technique. A silicone balloon catheter was introduced coaxially through the angiography catheter to the basilar artery just proximal to the aneurysm. The balloon was inflated tentatively to evaluate the appropriate inflation volume, then the balloon catheter was withdrawn back into the angiography catheter to prevent thrombus formation. After exposure of the aneurysm, the occlusion balloon was advanced again and inflated temporarily within the basilar artery to prevent premature rupture and to facilitate dissection of the aneurysm. The mean duration of temporary balloon occlusion was 22 minutes. There were no patients with postoperative deficits attributable to the temporary occlusion. The results of aneurysm clip placement were confirmed by intraoperative digital subtraction angiography immediately after clipping. No patient suffered from distal embolism or other complications related to vessel catheterization. From this experience, it is concluded that this intraoperative endovascular technique can contribute to the success of surgery for complex cerebral aneurysms, particularly for basilar trunk aneurysms in which proximal vascular control is difficult.

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Anterior paraclinoid aneurysms

Roberto C. Heros

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Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 messenger RNA after transient and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats: comparison with c-fos messenger RNA by using in situ hybridization

Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Haiyen Huang, Shouichi Arai, Kazuo Mizoi, and Takashi Yoshimoto

Object. Recently, two different cyclooxygenase (COX) genes, COX-1 and -2, were identified. In this study, topographic and chronological profiles of COX-2 messenger (m)RNA and c-fos mRNA expression were investigated using in situ hybridization after focal cerebral ischemia.

Methods. Rats undergoing permanent ischemia were decapitated at 30 and 90 minutes and at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, and rats undergoing transient ischemia were decapitated at 4, 8, and 24 hours after MCA occlusion that lasted for either 30 or 90 minutes. After brief transient MCA occlusion, c-fos mRNA was induced in the whole MCA territory, adjacent cortex (cingulate cortex), and distant brain regions such as the hippocampus and substantia nigra. In contrast, COX-2 mRNA was not induced in the ischemic core (lateral striatum) but only in the penumbral area (MCA cortex). Long transient and permanent MCA occlusion did not induce c-fos and COX-2 mRNAs in the ischemic core but strongly induced both mRNAs in the penumbral area (medial striatum and periphery of MCA cortex) and adjacent cortex (cingulate cortex). In brain regions distant from the ischemic territory, although c-fos mRNA was induced in the thalamus, substantia nigra, and hippocampus after extended transient and permanent occlusion, COX-2 mRNA was only induced in the bilateral hippocampi. The induction of COX-2 mRNA persisted in all locations even at 24 hours after MCA occlusion.

Conclusions. The distribution of COX-2 mRNA induction was apparently different from that of c-fos mRNA after MCA occlusion. These results pertaining to COX-2 mRNA agree well with the previous observations of changes in prostaglandin metabolism induced by focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether this induction of the COX-2 gene contributes to the histopathological outcome of cerebral ischemia remains to be elucidated.

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Innovative approach in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma in which the 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine single-positron emission computerized tomography is used

Case illustration

Toshio Sasajima, Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Noriaki Tomura, Jiro Watarai, and Kazuo Mizoi

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A novel screw guiding method with a screw guide template system for posterior C-2 fixation

Clinical article

Shuichi Kaneyama, Taku Sugawara, Masatoshi Sumi, Naoki Higashiyama, Masato Takabatake, and Kazuo Mizoi

Object

Accurate insertion of C-2 cervical screws is imperative; however, the procedures for C-2 screw insertion are technically demanding and challenging, especially in cases of C-2 vertebral abnormality. The purpose of this study is to report the effectiveness of the tailor-made screw guide template (SGT) system for placement of C-2 screws, including in cases with abnormalities.

Methods

Twenty-three patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion surgery with C-2 cervical screw insertion using the SGT system were included. The preoperative bone image on CT was analyzed using multiplanar imaging software. The trajectory and depth of the screws were designed based on these images, and transparent templates with screw guiding cylinders were created for each lamina. During the operation, after templates were engaged directly to the laminae, drilling, tapping, and screwing were performed through the templates. The authors placed 26 pedicle screws, 12 pars screws, 6 laminar screws, and 4 C1–2 transarticular screws using the SGT system. To assess the accuracy of the screw track under this system, the deviation of the screw axis from the preplanned trajectory was evaluated on postoperative CT and was classified as follows: Class 1 (accurate), a screw axis deviation less than 2 mm from the planned trajectory; Class 2 (inaccurate), 2 mm or more but less than 4 mm; and Class 3 (deviated), 4 mm or more. In addition, to assess the safety of the screw insertion, malpositioning of the screws was also evaluated using the following grading system: Grade 0 (containing), a screw is completely within the wall of the bone structure; Grade 1 (exposure), a screw perforates the wall of the bone structure but more than 50% of the screw diameter remains within the bone; Grade 2 (perforation), a screw perforates the bone structures and more than 50% of the screw diameter is outside the pedicle; and Grade 3 (penetration), a screw perforates completely outside the bone structure.

Results

In total, 47 (97.9%) of 48 screws were classified into Class 1 and Grade 0, whereas 1 laminar screw was classified as Class 3 and Grade 2. Mean screw deviations were 0.36 mm in the axial plane (range 0.0–3.8 mm) and 0.30 mm in the sagittal plane (range 0.0–0.8 mm).

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that the SGT system provided extremely accurate C-2 cervical screw insertion without configuration of reference points, high-dose radiation from intraoperative 3D navigation, or any registration or probing error evoked by changes in spinal alignment during surgery. A multistep screw placement technique and reliable screw guide cylinders were the key to accurate screw placement using the SGT system.

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Multistep pedicle screw insertion procedure with patient-specific lamina fit-and-lock templates for the thoracic spine

Clinical article

Taku Sugawara, Naoki Higashiyama, Shuichi Kaneyama, Masato Takabatake, Naoko Watanabe, Fujio Uchida, Masatoshi Sumi, and Kazuo Mizoi

Object

Pedicle screw fixation is a standard procedure of spinal instrumentation, but accurate screw placement is essential to avoid injury to the adjacent structures, such as the vessels, nerves, and viscera. The authors recently developed an intraoperative screw guiding method in which patient-specific laminar templates were used, and verified the accuracy of the multistep procedure in the thoracic spine.

Methods

Preoperative bone images of the CT scans were analyzed using 3D/multiplanar imaging software and the trajectories of the screws were planned. Plastic templates with screw guiding structures were created for each lamina by using 3D design and printing technology. Three types of templates were made for precise multistep guidance, and all templates were specially designed to fit and lock on the lamina during the procedure. Plastic vertebra models were also generated and preoperative screw insertion simulation was performed. Surgery was performed using this patient-specific screw guide template system, and the placement of screws was postoperatively evaluated using CT scanning.

Results

Ten patients with thoracic or cervicothoracic pathological entities were selected to verify this novel procedure. Fifty-eight pedicle screws were placed using the screw guide template system. Preoperatively, each template was found to fit exactly and to lock on the lamina of the vertebra models, and screw insertion simulation was successfully performed. Intraoperatively the templates also fit and locked on the patient lamina, and screw insertion was completed successfully. Postoperative CT scans confirmed that no screws violated the cortex of the pedicles, and the mean deviation of the screws from the planned trajectories was 0.87 ± 0.34 mm at the coronal midpoint section of the pedicles.

Conclusions

The multistep, patient-specific screw guide template system is useful for intraoperative pedicle screw navigation in the thoracic spine. This simple and economical method can improve the accuracy of pedicle screw insertion and reduce the operating time and radiation exposure of spinal fixation surgery.

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Angiographically occult spinal dural arteriovenous fistula located using selective computed tomography angiography

Case report

Taku Sugawara, Yoshitaka Hirano, Yasunobu Itoh, Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Satoshi Takahashi, and Kazuo Mizoi

✓Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is the most common type of spinal arteriovenous malformation and may cause progressive myelopathy but is usually treatable in the early stages by direct surgery or intravascular embolization. Selective spinal angiography has been the gold standard for diagnosis, but angiographically occult DAVF is not uncommon. A 67-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated segmental atrophy of the spinal cord and dilated coronary veins on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord. A DAVF was suspected, but repeated selective angiography failed to demonstrate the fistula. Findings from spoiled gradient echo MR imaging suggested that the draining vein flowed into the dilated venous plexus at the T-9 level. Selective computed tomography (CT) angiography of the right T-9 intercostal artery confirmed the location of the fistula. The authors successfully occluded the draining vein through surgery, and they observed that the fistula was low flow. The patient exhibited improvement in his symptoms, and postoperative MR imaging confirmed closure of the fistula. Selective CT angiography is useful in locating the draining vein of angiographically occult DAVF and therefore minimizing the extent of the surgical procedure.