Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: Kazunari Yoshida x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Kazunari Yoshida and Takeshi Kawase

Object. Since 1974, 27 patients with trigeminal neurinomas (TNs) have been treated at Keio University Hospital and ancillary institutes. In the present study the clinical features and developmental patterns of these 27 cases are analyzed, and the clinical features of 402 cases reported in the literature are reviewed. Based on the analysis of the developmental patterns of the TNs, the surgical strategy for a one-stage removal of TNs involving multiple fossae is described.

Methods. Trigeminal neurinomas are classified into six types according to tumor location. Types M, P, and E are tumors involving a single compartment, that is, the middle fossa, posterior fossa, or extracranial space, respectively. Types MP (middle and posterior fossae), ME (middle fossa and extracranial space), or MPE (middle and posterior fossae and extracranial space) are tumors involving multiple compartments. Advances in neuroimaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging, have revealed a high incidence of TNs extending into multiple fossae, namely 36.2% in cases reported since 1983 and 59% in the authors' series. All but one of the most recent 19 patients in this series underwent skull base surgery, whereas the remaining nine patients were surgically treated via the conventional subdural approach. The rate of total tumor removal and the clinical outcome were significantly better in those patients treated by skull base surgery than those treated by conventional surgery.

Conclusions. The TNs extending into multiple fossae can be totally removed using the following single-stage surgical techniques: Type MP by the anterior transpetrosal approach; Type ME by the zygomatic or orbitozygomatic infratemporal approach; and Type MPE by the zygomatic transpetrosal approach. In 12 of 13 cases involving multiple fossae in this series, total tumor removal was achieved using single-stage skull base surgery.

Restricted access

Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Takayuki Ohira and Kazunari Yoshida

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine the most effective electrode montage to elicit lower-extremity transcranial motor evoked potentials (LE-tMEPs) using a minimum stimulation current.

METHODS

A realistic 3D head model was created from T1-weighted images. Finite element methods were used to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by transcranial electrical stimulation via 4 electrode montage models. The stimulation threshold level of LE-tMEPs in 52 patients was also studied in a practical clinical setting to determine the effects of each electrode montage.

RESULTS

The electric field in the brain radially diffused from the brain surface at a maximum just below the electrodes in the finite element models. The Cz-inion electrode montage generated a centrally distributed high electric field with a current direction longitudinal and parallel to most of the pyramidal tract fibers of the lower extremity. These features seemed to be effective in igniting LE-tMEPs.

Threshold level recordings of LE-tMEPs revealed that the Cz-inion electrode montage had a lower threshold on average than the C3–C4 montage, 76.5 ± 20.6 mA and 86.2 ± 20.6 mA, respectively (31 patients, t = 4.045, p < 0.001, paired t-test). In 23 (74.2%) of 31 cases, the Cz-inion montage could elicit LE-tMEPs at a lower threshold than C3–C4.

CONCLUSIONS

The C3–C4 and C1–C2 electrode montages are the standard for tMEP monitoring in neurosurgery, but the Cz-inion montage showed lower thresholds for the generation of LE-tMEPs. The Cz-inion electrode montage should be a good alternative for LE-tMEP monitoring when the C3–C4 has trouble igniting LE-tMEPs.

Restricted access

Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Masahiro Toda, Takayuki Ohira and Kazunari Yoshida

OBJECTIVE

Transcranial motor evoked potential (tMEP) monitoring is popular in neurosurgery; however, the accuracy of tMEP can be impaired by craniotomy. Each craniotomy procedure and changes in the CSF levels affects the current spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of several craniotomies on tMEP monitoring by using C3–4 transcranial electrical stimulation (TES).

METHODS

The authors used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by TES, using realistic 3D head models developed from T1-weighted MR images. Surfaces of 5 layers of the head (brain, CSF, skull, subcutaneous fat, and skin layer) were separated as accurately as possible. The authors created 5 models of the head, as follows: normal head; frontotemporal craniotomy; parietal craniotomy; temporal craniotomy; and occipital craniotomy. The computer simulation was investigated by finite element methods, and clinical recordings of the stimulation threshold level of upper-extremity tMEP (UE-tMEP) during neurosurgery were also studied in 30 patients to validate the simulation study.

RESULTS

Bone removal during the craniotomy positively affected the generation of the electric field in the motor cortex if the motor cortex was just under the bone at the margin of the craniotomy window. This finding from the authors' simulation study was consistent with clinical reports of frontotemporal craniotomy cases. A major decrease in CSF levels during an operation had a significantly negative impact on the electric field when the motor cortex was exposed to air. The CSF surface level during neurosurgery depends on the body position and location of the craniotomy. The parietal craniotomy and temporal craniotomy were susceptible to the effect of the changing CSF level, based on the simulation study. A marked increase in the threshold following a decrease in CSF was actually recorded in clinical reports of the UE-tMEP threshold from a temporal craniotomy. However, most frontotemporal craniotomy cases were minimally affected by a small decrease in CSF.

CONCLUSIONS

Bone removal during a craniotomy positively affects the generation of the electric field in the motor cortex if the motor cortex is just under the bone at the margin of the craniotomy window. The CSF decrease and the shifting brain can negatively affect tMEP ignition. These changes should be minimized to maintain the original conductivity between the motor cortex and the skull, and the operation team must remember the fluctuation of the tMEP threshold.

Full access

Mohamed Samy Elhammady and Roberto C. Heros

Restricted access

Ryota Tamura, Ryosuke Tomio, Farrag Mohammad, Masahiro Toda and Kazunari Yoshida

OBJECTIVE

The anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) was established in 1984 and has been particularly effective for petroclival tumors. Although some complications associated with this approach, such as venous hemorrhage in the temporal lobe and nervous disturbances, have been resolved over the years, the incidence rate of CSF leaks has not greatly improved. In this study, some varieties of air cell tracts that are strongly related to CSF leaks are demonstrated. In addition, other pre- and postoperative risk factors for CSF leakage after ATPA are discussed.

METHODS

Preoperative and postoperative target imaging of the temporal bone was performed in a total of 117 patients who underwent ATPA, and various surgery-related parameters were analyzed.

RESULTS

The existence of air cells at the petrous apex, as well as fluid collection in the mastoid antrum detected by a postoperative CT scan, were possible risk factors for CSF leakage. Tracts that directly connected to the antrum from the squamous part of the temporal bone and petrous apex, rather than through numerous air cells, were significantly related to CSF leak and were defined as “direct tract.” All patients with a refractory CSF leak possessed “unusual tracts” that connected to the attic, tympanic cavity, or eustachian tube, rather than through the mastoid antrum.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative assessment of petrous pneumatization types is necessary to prevent CSF leaks. Direct and unusual tracts are particularly strong risk factors for CSF leaks.

Restricted access

Raita Fukaya, Kazunari Yoshida, Takenori Akiyama and Takeshi Kawase

The origin of moyamoya disease remains unknown. The onset of the angiographically apparent changes of typical moyamoya disease occurs in childhood, but de novo development of the disease has not been confirmed angiographically. The authors report on a case of de novo development of moyamoya disease in a middle-aged female whose cerebral angiography demonstrated no abnormal findings 5 years previously. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of de novo development of definite moyamoya disease verified angiographically. This case demonstrates that the de novo development of moyamoya disease in a middle-aged adult did in fact occur, and angiographically visible features of the disease took < 5 years to complete.

Full access

Hiroki Kanamori, Yohei Kitamura, Tokuhiro Kimura, Kazunari Yoshida and Hikaru Sasaki

OBJECT

Although chondrosarcomas rarely arise in the skull base, chondrosarcomas and chordomas are the 2 major malignant bone neoplasms occurring at this location. The distinction of these 2 tumors is important, but this distinction is occasionally problematic because of radiological and histological overlap. Unlike chordoma and extracranial chondrosarcoma, no case series presenting a whole-genome analysis of skull base chondrosarcomas (SBCSs) has been reported. The goal of this study is to clarify the genetic characteristics of SBCSs and contrast them with those of chordomas.

METHODS

The authors analyzed 7 SBCS specimens for chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). They also examined IDH1 and IDH2 mutations and brachyury expression.

RESULTS

In CGH analyses, the authors detected CNAs in 6 of the 7 cases, including chromosomal gains of 8q21.1, 19, 2q22-q32, 5qcen-q14, 8q21-q22, and 15qcen-q14. Mutation of IDH1 was found with a high frequency (5 of 7 cases, 71.4%), of which R132S was most frequently mutated. No IDH2 mutations were found, and immunohistochemical staining for brachyury was negative in all cases.

CONCLUSIONS

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first whole-genome study of an SBSC case series. Their findings suggest that these tumors are molecularly consistent with a subset of conventional central chondrosarcomas and different from skull base chordomas.

Restricted access

Kazunari Yoshida, Shigeo Toya, Mitsuhiro Ohtani, Shunichi Okui, Nobuo Takenaka and Kenichi Harigaya

✓ A case of pineal germ-cell tumor producing human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is reported in a 23-year-old man. Extraneural metastasis developed during a course of combined chemotherapy after radiation therapy. Postmortem examination revealed that the metastatic pulmonary tumor was a choriocarcinoma, producing only HCG.

Restricted access

Kazuhide Adachi, Takeshi Kawase, Kazunari Yoshida, Takahito Yazaki and Satoshi Onozuka

Object

Surgery for skull base meningiomas (SBMs) can lead to complications because these lesions are difficult to approach and can involve cranial nerves and arteries. The authors propose a scoring system to evaluate the relative risks and benefits of surgical treatment of SBMs.

Methods

The authors used a 2-step process to construct their scale. First, they derived significant predictive variables from retrospective data on 132 SBM cases treated surgically (primary surgeries only) between May 2000 and December 2005. Next, they validated the predictive accuracy of their scoring system in 60 consecutive cases treated surgically between January 1995 and April 2000, including both primary and repeated surgeries. Finally, they investigated the effect of the surgery on the patients' preoperative symptoms for consecutive cases treated surgically between January 1995 and December 2005, including both primary surgeries and retreatments.

Results

Five items that predicted surgical risk were identified: 1) tumor attachment size; 2) arterial involvement; 3) brainstem contact; 4) central cavity location; and 5) cranial nerve group involvement. The authors named their scoring system the ABC Surgical Risk Scale, after the initial letters of these items. Each factor was assigned a score of 0–2 points, and an additional point was added for previous surgical treatment or for radiation, giving a possible total score of 12 points. On average, the scoring system allocated 2 points for gross-total resections, 6.1 points for near-total resections, and 9 points for subtotal resections, with significant differences between groups. For cases scoring ≥ 8 points, the percentage of cases showing neurological deterioration postoperatively exceeded the percentage showing improvement.

Conclusions

The authors conclude that this scoring system can be used to predict the extent of tumor removal and that the scores reflect the surgical risk.

Full access

Ryosuke Tomio, Masahiro Toda, Kazunari Yoshida and Hamid Borghei-Razavi