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Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A. Smith and Paul M. Arnold

Immunoglobulin G4–related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently defined condition characterized by inflammatory tumefactive lesions in various organ systems. IgG4-RD is a clinical and radiological diagnosis of exclusion and requires the presence of specific histopathological criteria for diagnosis.

A 50-year-old man presented to an outside hospital with a 3-month history of progressively worsening back pain and symptoms of pleurisy, nasal crusting, and hematochezia. Radiological workup revealed an epidural-paraspinal mass with displacement of the spinal cord, destruction of the T5–6 vertebrae, and extension into the right lung. Biopsy sampling and subsequent histopathological analysis revealed dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and a storiform pattern of fibrosis. With strong histopathological evidence of IgG4-RD, the patient was started on a regimen of prednisone. Further testing ruled out malignant neoplasm, infectious etiologies, and other autoimmune diseases. Two weeks later, the patient presented with acute-onset paraplegia due to spinal cord compression. The patient underwent decompression laminectomy of T5–6, posterior instrumented fusion of T2–8, and debulking of the epidural-paraspinal mass. After the continued administration of glucocorticosteroids, the patient improved remarkably to near-normal strength in the lower extremities and sensory function 6 months after surgery.

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of IgG4-related epidural inflammatory pseudotumor and spinal cord compression in the United States. This case highlights the importance of early administration of glucocorticosteroids, which were essential to preventing further progression and preventing relapse. IgG4-RD evaluation is important after other diseases in the differential diagnosis are ruled out.

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Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Iyan Younus, Shlomo Minkowitz, Apostolos John Tsiouris and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Resection of supratentorial meningiomas is generally considered a low-risk procedure, but tumors involving the rolandic cortex present a unique challenge. The rate of motor function deterioration associated with resecting such tumors is not well described in the literature. Thus, the authors sought to report the rates and predictors of postoperative motor deficit following the resection of rolandic meningiomas to assist with patient counseling and surgical decision-making.

METHODS

An institution’s pathology database was screened for meningiomas removed between 2000 and 2017, and patients with neuroradiological evidence of rolandic involvement were identified. Parameters screened as potential predictors included patient age, sex, preoperative motor severity, tumor location, tumor origin (falx vs convexity), histological grade, FLAIR signal (T2-weighted MRI), venous involvement (T1-weighted MRI with contrast), intratumoral hemorrhage, embolization, and degree of resection (Simpson grade). Variables of interest included preoperative weakness and postoperative motor decline (novel or worsened permanent deficit). The SPSS univariate and bivariate analysis functions were used, and statistical significance was determined with alpha < 0.05.

RESULTS

In 89 patients who had undergone resection of convexity (80.9%) or parasagittal (19.1%) rolandic meningiomas, a postoperative motor decline occurred in 24.7%. Of 53 patients (59.6%) with preoperative motor deficits, 60.3% improved, 13.2% were unchanged, and 26.4% worsened following surgery. Among the 36 patients without preoperative deficits, 22.2% developed new weakness. Predictors of preoperative motor deficit included tumor size (41.6 vs 33.2 cm3, p = 0.040) and presence of FLAIR signal (69.8% vs 50.0%, p = 0.046). Predictors of postoperative motor decline were preoperative motor deficit (47.2% vs 22.2%, p = 0.017), minor (compared with severe) preoperative weakness (25.6% vs 21.4%, p < 0.001), and preoperative embolization (54.5% vs 20.5%, p = 0.014). Factors that trended toward significance included parafalcine tumor origin (41.2% vs 20.8% convexity, p = 0.08), significant venous involvement (44.4% vs 23.5% none, p = 0.09), and Simpson grade II+ (34.2% vs 17.6% grade I, p = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS

Resection of rolandic area meningiomas carries a high rate of postoperative morbidity and deserves special preoperative planning. Large tumor size, peritumoral edema, preoperative embolization, parafalcine origin, and venous involvement may further increase the risk. Alternative surgical strategies, such as aggressive internal debulking, may prevent motor decline in a subset of high-risk patients.

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Kavelin Rumalla, Chester K. Yarbrough, Andrew J. Pugely, Linda Koester and Ian G. Dorward

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine if the recent changes in technology, surgical techniques, and surgical literature have influenced practice trends in spinal fusion surgery for pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). In this study the authors analyzed recent trends in the surgical management of NMS and investigated the effect of various patient and surgical factors on in-hospital complications, outcomes, and costs, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database.

METHODS

The NIS was queried from 2002 to 2011 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes to identify pediatric cases (age < 18 years) of spinal fusion for NMS. Several patient, surgical, and short-term outcome factors were included in the analyses. Trend analyses of these factors were conducted. Both univariate and multivariable analyses were used to determine the effect of the various patient and surgical factors on short-term outcomes.

RESULTS

Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 2154 NMS fusion cases were identified, and the volume of spinal fusion procedures increased 93% from 148 in 2002 to 286 in 2011 (p < 0.0001). The mean patient age was 12.8 ± 3.10 years, and 45.6% of the study population was female. The overall complication rate was 40.1% and the respiratory complication rate was 28.2%. From 2002 to 2011, upward trends (p < 0.0001) were demonstrated in Medicaid insurance status (36.5% to 52.8%), presence of ≥ 1 comorbidity (40.2% to 52.1%), and blood transfusions (25.2% to 57.3%). Utilization of posterior-only fusions (PSFs) increased from 66.2% to 90.2% (p < 0.0001) while combined anterior release/fusions and PSF (AR/PSF) decreased from 33.8% to 9.8% (< 0.0001). Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) underwent increasing utilization from 2009 to 2011 (15.5% to 20.3%, p < 0.0001). The use/harvest of autograft underwent a significant upward trend between 2002 and 2011 (31.3% to 59.8%, p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, IONM use was associated with decreased complications (40.7% to 33.1%, p = 0.049) and length of stay (LOS; 9.21 to 6.70 days, p <0.0001). Inflation-adjusted mean hospital costs increased nearly 75% from 2002 to 2011 ($36,805 to $65,244, p < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, nonwhite race, highest quartile of median household income, greater preexisting comorbidity, long-segment fusions, and use of blood transfusions were found to increase the likelihood of complication occurrence (all p < 0.05). In further multivariable analysis, independent predictors of prolonged LOS included older age, increased preexisting comorbidity, the AR/PSF approach, and long-segment fusions (all p < 0.05). Lastly, the likelihood of increased hospital costs (at or above the 90th percentile for LOS, 14 days) was increased by older age, female sex, Medicaid insurance status, highest quartile of median household income, AR/PSF approach, long-segment fusion, and blood transfusion (all p < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, the use of autograft was associated with a lower likelihood of complication occurrence and prolonged LOS (both p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Increasing use of IONM and posterior-only approaches may combat the high complication rates in NMS. The trends of increasing comorbidities, blood transfusions, and total costs in spinal fusion surgery for pediatric NMS may indicate an increasingly aggressive approach to these cases.

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Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A. Smith, Vijay Letchuman, Mrudula Gandham, Rachana Kombathula and Paul M. Arnold

OBJECTIVE

Posttraumatic seizures (PTSs) are the most common complication following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may lead to posttraumatic epilepsy. PTS is well described in the adult literature but has not been studied extensively in children. Here, the authors utilized the largest nationwide registry of pediatric hospitalizations to report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with PTS in pediatric TBI.

METHODS

The authors queried the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) using ICD-9-CM codes to identify all patients (age < 21 years) who had a primary diagnosis of TBI (850.xx–854.xx) and a secondary diagnosis of PTS (780.33, 780.39). Parameters of interest included patient demographics, preexisting comorbidities, hospital characteristics, nature of injury (open/closed), injury type (concussion, laceration/contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, or epidural hematoma), loss of consciousness (LOC), surgical management (Clinical Classification Software code 1 or 2), discharge disposition, in-hospital complications, and in-hospital mortality. The authors utilized the IBM SPSS statistical package (version 24) for univariate comparisons, as well as the identification of independent risk factors for PTS in multivariable analysis (alpha set at < 0.05).

RESULTS

The rate of PTS was 6.9% among 124,444 unique patients hospitalized for TBI. The utilization rate of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) was 0.3% and increased between 2003 (0.1%) and 2012 (0.7%). The most common etiologies of TBI were motor vehicle accident (n = 50,615), accidental fall (n = 30,847), and blunt trauma (n = 13,831). However, the groups with the highest rate of PTS were shaken infant syndrome (41.4%), accidental falls (8.1%), and cycling accidents (7.4%). In multivariable analysis, risk factors for PTS included age 0–5 years (compared with 6–10, 11–15, and 16–20 years), African American race (OR 1.4), ≥ 3 preexisting comorbidities (OR 4.0), shaken infant syndrome (OR 4.4), subdural hematoma (OR 1.6), closed-type injury (OR 2.3), brief LOC (OR 1.4), moderate LOC (OR 1.5), and prolonged LOC with baseline return (OR 1.8). Surgically managed patients were more likely to experience PTS (OR 1.5) unless they were treated within 24 hours of admission (OR 0.8). PTS was associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital complications (OR 1.7) and adverse (nonroutine) discharge disposition (OR 1.2), but not in-hospital mortality (OR 0.5). The overall utilization rate of cEEG was 1.3% in PTS patients compared with 0.2% in patients without PTS. Continuous EEG monitoring was associated with higher rates of diagnosed PTS (35.4% vs 6.8%; OR 4.9, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

PTS is common in children with TBI and is associated with adverse outcomes. Independent risk factors for PTS include younger age (< 5 years), African American race, increased preexisting comorbidity, prolonged LOC, and injury pattern involving cortical exposure to blood products. However, patients who undergo urgent surgical evacuation are less likely to develop PTS.

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Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Andrew F. Alalade, Prakash Nair, Emanuele La Corte, Iyan Younus, Jonathan A. Forbes, Atef Ben Nsir, Matei A. Banu, Apostolos John Tsiouris and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Anterior skull base meningiomas are benign lesions that cause neurological symptoms through mass effect on adjacent neurovascular structures. While traditional transcranial approaches have proven to be effective at removing these tumors, minimally invasive approaches that involve using an endoscope offer the possibility of reducing brain and nerve retraction, minimizing incision size, and speeding patient recovery; however, appropriate case selection and results in large series are lacking.

METHODS

The authors developed an algorithm for selecting a supraorbital keyhole minicraniotomy (SKM) for olfactory groove meningiomas or an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for tuberculum sella (TS) or planum sphenoidale (PS) meningiomas based on the presence or absence of olfaction and the anatomical extent of the tumor. Where neither approach is appropriate, a standard transcranial approach is utilized. The authors describe rates of gross-total resection (GTR), olfactory outcomes, and visual outcomes, as well as complications, for 7 subgroups of patients. Exceptions to the algorithm are also discussed.

RESULTS

The series of 57 patients harbored 57 anterior skull base meningiomas; the mean tumor volume was 14.7 ± 15.4 cm3 (range 2.2–66.1 cm3), and the mean follow-up duration was 42.2 ± 37.1 months (range 2–144 months). Of 19 patients with olfactory groove meningiomas, 10 had preserved olfaction and underwent SKM, and preservation of olfaction in was seen in 60%. Of 9 patients who presented without olfaction, 8 had cribriform plate invasion and underwent combined SKM and EEA (n = 3), bifrontal craniotomy (n = 3), or EEA (n = 2), and one patient without both olfaction and cribriform plate invasion underwent SKM. GTR was achieved in 94.7%. Of 38 TS/PS meningiomas, 36 of the lesions were treated according to the algorithm. Of these 36 meningiomas, 30 were treated by EEA and 6 by craniotomy. GTR was achieved in 97.2%, with no visual deterioration and one CSF leak that resolved by placement of a lumbar drain. Two patients with tumors that, based on the algorithm, were not amenable to an EEA underwent EEA nonetheless: one had GTR and the other had a residual tumor that was followed and removed via craniotomy 9 years later.

CONCLUSIONS

Utilizing a simple algorithm aimed at preserving olfaction and vision and based on maximizing use of minimally invasive approaches and selective use of transcranial approaches, the authors found that excellent outcomes can be achieved for anterior skull base meningiomas.