Understanding the altered physiology following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in the setting of adult hydrocephalus is important for optimizing patient care and avoiding complications. There is mounting evidence that the cerebral venous system plays a major role in intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics especially when one takes into account the effects of postural changes, atmospheric pressure, and gravity on the craniospinal axis as a whole. An evolved mechanism acting at the cortical bridging veins, known as the “Starling resistor,” prevents overdrainage of cranial venous blood with upright positioning. This protective mechanism can become nonfunctional after CSF diversion, which can result in posture-related cerebral venous overdrainage through the cranial venous outflow tracts, leading to pathological states. This review article summarizes the relevant anatomical and physiological bases of the relationship between the craniospinal venous and CSF compartments and surveys complications that may be explained by the cerebral venous overdrainage phenomenon. It is hoped that this article adds a new dimension to our therapeutic methods, stimulates further research into this field, and ultimately improves our care of these patients.
Kaveh Barami, Laura Lewis-Tuffin and Panos Z. Anastasiadis
✓Cell–cell adhesion is a crucial process occurring during normal tissue development. Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell-surface adhesion molecules involved in cell–cell adhesion. They reorganize the actin cytoskeleton via interaction with the catenins. Modulation of the cadherin/catenin system plays a role in cell motility. Dysregulation of the cadherin/catenin assembly has been implicated in various cancers. In this review, the authors summarize all studies focusing on the role of cadherins and catenins in glioma formation. With the emergence of recent data regarding gliomas' putative cell of origin, elucidation of the role of cadherins/catenins in gliomagenesis will become important in devising new therapeutic approaches against such deadly cancers.
Kaveh Barami, Hsiao-nan Hao, Gregory A. Lotoczky, Fernando G. Diaz and William D. Lyman
Object. The goal of this study was to establish whether transplanted cells derived from fetal human brain can survive in an ischemic lesion.
Methods. Sixteen adult male Mongolian gerbils underwent transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. One week later, cell suspensions prepared from fetal human brain were injected using stereotactic guidance into the CA1 region of the hippocampus on one side. On the contralateral side injection of the cell suspension medium only was performed. One week after transplantation, the animals were perfusion fixed and their brains were processed for histological studies as well as expression of neuron and glia-specific antigens. Data from ischemic animals were compared with eight nonischemic gerbils that served as sham-operated controls. Last, the in vivo data were correlated with observations made from matching in vitro cultures of the fetal brain cell suspension.
The in vivo data indicated that transplanted human fetus—derived brain cells survived in ischemic lesions of gerbil hippocampus after 1 week, provided that the host animal underwent adequate immunosuppression and the transplanted cells were not incorporated into the scar caused by the transplantation procedure. Unlike their in vivo counterparts, after 1 week, most cultured fetal brain cells expressed either neuron- or astrocyte-specific antigens.
Conclusions. This work demonstrates that xenotransplanted fetal human brain cells are able to survive in an ischemic lesion in a rodent model. These data might be useful for future neural transplantation studies of treatments for cerebrovascular ischemia in humans.
Kaveh Barami, Allison Grow, Steven Brem, Elias Dagnew and Andrew E. Sloan
✓During the past 25 years, radiosurgery has evolved as a primary treatment modality for certain meningiomas when resection would be associated with high patient morbidity. In addition, radiosurgery is now routinely used as an adjunctive therapy for residual or recurrent meningiomas after surgical removal. In this review the authors summarize the vascular complications that occur after radiosurgery for meningiomas as well as experimental study data that give insight into the pathogenesis of this complication. These data may be useful when discussing with patients the risk/benefit ratio of choosing among conservative management, radiosurgery, and surgery.