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Masahiro Sugawa, Kohei Fukuoka, Makiko Mori, Yuki Arakawa, Yutaka Tanami, Sumihito Nobusawa, Junko Hirato, Atsuko Nakazawa, Jun Kurihara, and Katsuyoshi Koh

OBJECTIVE

Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) is one of the childhood central nervous system tumors with the poorest prognosis; thus, establishing an optimal treatment strategy is essential, However, because of the low incidence and molecular heterogeneity of the tumor, the optimal treatment has not yet been determined. In this study the authors evaluated the prognostic impact of a multimodal treatment approach in patients with ETMR.

METHODS

The authors evaluated 4 patients with ETMR at their institution who showed varied clinical features and also conducted clinical characterization and prognostic analysis of previously reported cases of the ETMR-presenting locus 19q13.42 with a chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC) amplification, which is known to be a diagnostic hallmark of the tumor.

RESULTS

Of the 4 patients with ETMR in the authors’ institution, in 1 case the patient’s tumor showed a neuroblastoma-like appearance without multilayered rosettes; however, the diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of amplified C19MC. From a clinical standpoint, 2 patients who underwent gross-total resection (GTR) of the tumor and chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) had long-term complete remission with or without local irradiation. In the multivariate analysis of 43 cases with C19MC-altered ETMR reported in the literature, HDC and local irradiation were significantly correlated with better event-free survival (HR 0.17, p = 0.0087; HR 0.17, p = 0.010) and overall survival (OS) (HR 0.29, p = 0.023; HR 0.28, p = 0.019), respectively. GTR was also correlated with better OS (HR 0.40, p = 0.039).

CONCLUSIONS

This case series demonstrated pathological and clinical heterogeneity among ETMR cases and the diagnostic importance of the molecular genetic approach among embryonal tumors, particularly during infancy. Based on the results of the analysis of molecularly uniformed ETMR cases, multimodal treatment may play a significant role in the prognosis of these tumors.

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Kai Yamasaki, Chikako Kiyotani, Keita Terashima, Yuko Watanabe, Masayuki Kanamori, Yuhki Koga, Nobuhiro Hata, Fuminori Iwasaki, Hiroaki Goto, Katsuyoshi Koh, Jun Kurihara, Shinya Tokunaga, Yoshiki Arakawa, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Kosaka, and Junichi Hara

OBJECTIVE

The prognosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) has improved in recent years with the use of multimodal therapy, mainly in cases not involving metastatic disease. The authors wanted to obtain historical control data and evaluate the suitable treatments in Japanese children with ATRTs that were proven negative for INI-1 immunostaining.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected clinical information on 38 pediatric patients with ATRTs treated from 2005 to 2016 and analyzed the data for this series.

RESULTS

The median age of the patient population was 1.3 years, and the male/female ratio was approximately 2:1. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had metastases. The effects of treatment on prognosis were analyzed for 34 patients after exclusion of 4 patients who could not receive curative treatment. At a median follow-up of 40.9 months, the mean (± SD) progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66.6% ± 8.3% and 45.9% ± 8.7% at 2 years and 44.2% ± 9.9% and 34.2% ± 8.9% at 5 years, respectively. The metastasis stage at diagnosis (M0–1 vs M2–4) (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.08–6.65; p = 0.0338) and gross tumor resection (yes vs no) (HR 3.49, 95% CI 1.01–12.1; p = 0.0481) were prognostic factors for PFS but not for OS. Postoperative chemotherapy was performed in all 34 cases. High-dose chemotherapy was performed in 19 (55.8%) of 34 patients and showed a positive impact on OS (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.86; p = 0.0254); the most commonly used regimen was a double-conditioning regimen of thiotepa plus melphalan. Local radiotherapy had a positive impact on both PFS and OS; however, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) performed in 12 patients as the primary therapy was associated with a poor outcome. Disseminated recurrence within 12 months from diagnosis was the most common pattern of treatment failure regardless of CSI.

CONCLUSIONS

There has been an improvement in outcomes for pediatric ATRT patients since the introduction of multimodal therapy in Japan, mainly in patients without metastases. Even if selection bias is taken into consideration, CSI did not contribute to an improved prognosis. Novel treatment approaches are required for pediatric ATRT patients with metastases.