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Debra A. Goldman, Koos Hovinga, Anne S. Reiner, Yoshua Esquenazi, Viviane Tabar and Katherine S. Panageas

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies assessed the relationship between repeat resection and overall survival (OS) in patients with glioblastoma, but ignoring the timing of repeat resection may have led to biased conclusions. Statistical methods that take time into account are well established and applied consistently in other medical fields. The goal of this study was to illustrate the change in the effect of repeat resection on OS in patients with glioblastoma once timing of resection is incorporated.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients initially diagnosed with glioblastoma between January 2005 and December 2014 who were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Patients underwent at least 1 craniotomy with both pre- and postoperative MRI data available. The effect of repeat resection on OS was assessed with time-dependent extended Cox regression controlling for extent of resection, initial Karnofsky Performance Scale score, sex, age, multifocal status, eloquent status, and postoperative treatment.

RESULTS

Eighty-nine (55%) of 163 patients underwent repeat resection with a median time between resections of 7.7 months (range 0.5–50.8 months). Median OS was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3–20.5 months) from initial resection. When timing of repeat resection was ignored, repeat resection was associated with a lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62, 95% CI 0.43–0.90, p = 0.01); however, when timing was taken into account, repeat resection was associated with a higher risk of death (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.47–3.28, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, accounting for timing of repeat resection reversed its protective effect on OS, suggesting repeat resection may not benefit OS in all patients. These findings establish a foundation for future work by accounting for timing of repeat resection using time-dependent methods in the evaluation of repeat resection on OS. Additional recommendations include improved data capture that includes mutational data, development of algorithms for determining eligibility for repeat resection, more rigorous statistical analyses, and the assessment of additional benefits of repeat resection, such as reduction of symptom burden and enhanced quality of life.

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Vikram C. Prabhu, Mark H. Bilsky, Kedar Jambhekar, Katherine S. Panageas, Patrick J. Boland, Eric Lis, Linda Heier and P. Kim Nelson

Object. Arterial embolization reduces blood loss in patients undergoing surgery for hypervascular spinal tumors. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in predicting tumor vascularity and 2) to assess the effectiveness of preoperative embolization in devascularizing these tumors.

Methods. Fifty-one patients with metastatic spinal neoplasms underwent angiography, preoperative embolization, and excision of the lesion between 1995 and 2000. The MR imaging studies were correlated with tumor vascularity on angiograms. Embolization was angiographically graded on a five-point scale ranging from no embolization (Grade A) to total embolization (Grade E). The embolization grade was correlated with intraoperative blood loss.

The mean age was 57 years, the male/female ratio was 1.2:1, and back pain was present in all patients. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (30 cases) and thoracic spine involvement (33 cases) were most frequent. The positive predictive value of MR imaging in determining tumor vascularity was 77%, whereas the negative predictive value was 21%. Total embolization (Grade E) was achieved in 34 patients. A shared vascular pedicle between a radiculomedullary artery (RMA) and a tumor diminished the likelihood of complete embolization (p = 0.02). Small asymptomatic cerebellar infarctions were demonstrated in two cases. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2586 ml. Following Grade D or E embolization, intraoperative bleeding was largely related to unembolized epidural veins.

Conclusions. Tumor histology and MR imaging findings are predictive of hypervascularity; however, hypervascular tumors may not be detected by standard MR imaging sequences. Superselective catheterization permits Grade D or E embolization in 80% of patients. Shared blood supply with an RMA is the most important factor precluding complete embolization.

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Rupa G. Juthani, Anne S. Reiner, Ankur R. Patel, Aimee Cowan, Marie Roguski, Katherine S. Panageas, Eliza B. Geer, Sasan Karimi, Marc A. Cohen and Viviane Tabar

OBJECTIVE

The utility and safety of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for resection of pituitary adenomas is not clearly established in the context of advances in endoscopic approaches. The goal in this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iMRI for pituitary adenoma resection, with endoscopic transsphenoidal (ETS) versus microscopic transsphenoidal (MTS) approaches.

METHODS

Radiographic and clinical outcomes of all pituitary adenomas resected using iMRI between 2008 and 2017 at a single institution were retrospectively evaluated.

RESULTS

Of 212 tumors treated, 131 (62%) underwent further resection based on iMRI findings, resulting in a significant increase in gross-total resection on postoperative MRI compared with iMRI (p = 0.0001) in both ETS and MTS groups. iMRI increased rates of gross-total resection for cavernous sinus invasion Knosp grades 1 and 2, but not in Knosp ≥ 3 across treatment groups (p < 0.0001). The extent of resection on postoperative MRI was significantly correlated with increased progression-free survival (p < 0.0001). Initial hormone remission off medical therapy was achieved in 64%, with a significantly higher rate of remission in tumors resected via the ETS approach (81%) compared with the MTS approach (55%) (p = 0.02). The rate of persistent new hormone deficit was low at 8%, including a 2.8% rate of permanent diabetes insipidus, and 45% of patients had improvement in preoperative hormone deficit following surgery. Serious postoperative complications including CSF leaks requiring reoperation were rare at 1%, with no postoperative infections.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that iMRI is a safe and effective method of increasing the extent of resection for pituitary adenomas while preserving hormone function. When paired with the endoscope, iMRI may offer the ability to tailor more aggressive removal of tumors while optimizing pituitary function, resulting in high rates of secretory hormone remission. Secretory tumors and adenomas with Knosp grade < 3 cavernous sinus invasion may benefit most from the use of iMRI.