A statistical study of venous anatomy in living patients
Mario Giordano, Karsten H. Wrede, Lennart H. Stieglitz, Madjid Samii and Wolf O. Lüdemann
The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of software-assisted 3D reconstruction performed using a neuronavigation system to delineate the anatomy and variation patterns of the pineal region venous complex, and then to compare these data with previous anatomical findings.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the neuroimages obtained in 100 patients with intracranial lesions (50 computed tomography [CT] scans obtained with contrast agents and 50 magnetic resonance [MR] images obtained with gadolinium) by using a neuronavigation workstation for 3D reconstruction. Particular attention was given to the internal cerebral vein, basal vein (BV), and the vein of Galen. The various connection patterns between the major vessels were classified and statistically analyzed.
The venous system of the pineal region shows a wide range of sex-related variations. In the female patient the absence of a BV (Type 0) is significantly more frequent than in the male. In this study the authors illustrate the ability to depict the venous drainage patterns in the pineal region for all cases studied by using 3D neuronavigation software without the need for additional examinations. This simple tool provides important information for surgical planning and may be of significant help intraoperatively.
Mehdi Chihi, Oliver Gembruch, Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Bixia Chen, Thiemo Florin Dinger, Lennart Barthel, Daniela Pierscianek, Karsten H. Wrede, Neriman Özkan, Ulrich Sure and Ramazan Jabbarli
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem genetic disease. Arterial wall developmental disorders, such as aneurysms, in association with TSC have been well described for extracranial vasculature. The characteristics of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in TSC have not previously been addressed in the literature. This systematic review was performed to identify and assess the distinct characteristics of IAs in patients with TSC.
The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for publications describing cases of TSC and IA reported before August 7, 2018. They also report 2 cases of IAs in TSC patients treated at their own institution.
Thirty-three TSC patients with a total of 42 IAs were included in this review. Three individuals presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The IAs were large or giant in 57.1% and fusiform in 45.2% of the cases. Most of the IAs (61.9%, 26 of 42) originated from the internal carotid artery. There was a higher prevalence of pediatric cases (66.7%) and male patients (63.6%, 21 of 32 individuals with known sex) among the collected series.
TSC patients with IAs are characterized with a higher proportion of large/giant and fusiform IAs and young age, suggesting rapid aneurysmal growth. Furthermore, there is a distinct location pattern of IAs and an inverse sex ratio than in the healthy population. Large population-based patient registers are required to improve the understanding of epidemiology and pathophysiology of IA formation in TSC.
Lennart H. Stieglitz, Karsten H. Wrede, Alireza Gharabaghi, Venelin M. Gerganov, Amir Samii, Madjid Samii and Wolf O. Luedemann
The aim of this study was to identify patients likely to develop CSF leaks after vestibular schwannoma surgery using a retrospective analysis for the identification of risk factors.
Between January 2001 and December 2006, 420 patients underwent retrosigmoidal microsurgical tumor removal in a standardized procedure. Of these 420 patients, 363 underwent treatment for the first time, and 27 suffered from recurrent tumors. Twenty-six patients had bilateral tumors due to neurofibromatosis Type 2, and 4 patients had previously undergone radiosurgical treatment. An analysis was performed to examine the incidence of postoperative CSF fistulas in all 4 groups.
The incidence of CSF leakage was higher in the tumor recurrence group (11.1%) than in patients undergoing surgery for the first time (4.4%). There were no CSF fistulas in the neurofibromatosis Type 2 group or in patients with preoperative radiosurgical treatment. Tumor size was identified as a possible risk factor in a previous study.
Surgery for recurrent tumors is a significant risk factor for the development of CSF leaks.
Philipp Dammann, Karsten Wrede, Yuan Zhu, Toshinori Matsushige, Stefan Maderwald, Lale Umutlu, Harald H. Quick, Ute Hehr, Matthias Rath, Mark E. Ladd, Ute Felbor and Ulrich Sure
Multiple cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are rare lesions that occur in sporadic or familial form. Depending on the disease form, the natural history and treatment of the lesions strongly vary. Molecular analysis of an underlying germline mutation (CCM1–3) is the most sensitive screening method to distinguish between sporadic and familial cases. However, based on the different pathomechanisms that are believed to be involved in either form, significant distinctions in the CCM-associated cerebral venous angioarchitecture should be detectable. This has not been systematically studied.
A consecutive series of 28 patients with multiple CCMs (681 total) diagnosed on 1.5-T MRI underwent genetic screening for CCM1–3 mutations and high-resolution susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) of the cerebral venous angioarchitecture with 7-T MRI. Imaging data were analyzed to examine the CCM-associated venous angioarchitecture. Results were correlated with findings of molecular analysis for CCM1–3 mutations.
Two different SWI patterns (sporadic and familial) were found. The presence of associated developmental venous anomalies correlated with negative screening for germline mutations (11 sporadic) in all cases. All patients with confirmed familial disease showed normal underlying venous angioarchitecture. Additionally, a very unusual case of a probable somatic mutation is presented.
The SWI results of the venous angioarchitecture of multiple CCMs correlate with sporadic or familial disease. These results are consistent with the theory that venous anomalies are causative for the sporadic form of multiple CCMs.