Karolyn Au, Suparna Bharadwaj, Lashmi Venkatraghavan and Mark Bernstein
Outpatient craniotomy has many advantages to the psychological and physical well-being of patients, as well as benefits to the health care system. Its efficacy and safety have been well demonstrated, but barriers to its widespread adoption remain. Among the challenges is a perception that its application is limited to cases performed under conscious sedation, which is not always feasible given certain patient or surgeon factors. The object of this study was to characterize the rate of patient discharge from the day surgery unit (DSU) following craniotomy for tumor resection in a patient under general anesthesia. The authors identify postoperative complications and discuss appropriate patient selection for day surgery craniotomy.
Patients undergoing elective craniotomy for supratentorial tumors between January 2010 and June 2014 were prospectively considered for outpatient management. Authors of the present study performed a retrospective chart review of these patients, analyzing cases by intention to treat.
Of 318 craniotomies undertaken in the study period, 141 were performed with the patient under general anesthesia. The day surgery protocol was initiated in 44 cases and completed in 38 (86%). Five patients required admission from the DSU, and 1 was discharged but admitted within the 1st postoperative day. In-hospital medical complications were fewer in the outpatient group, and no patients experienced an adverse outcome due to early discharge.
Close clinical and imaging surveillance in the early postoperative period allows for safe discharge of patients following craniotomy for tumor resection performed under general anesthesia. Therefore, general anesthesia does not preclude the application of outpatient craniotomy.
Cameron A. Elliott, Hayden Danyluk, Keith E. Aronyk, Karolyn Au, B. Matt Wheatley, Donald W. Gross, Tejas Sankar and Christian Beaulieu
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography is commonly used in neurosurgical practice but is largely limited to the preoperative setting. This is due primarily to image degradation caused by susceptibility artifact when conventional single-shot (SS) echo-planar imaging (EPI) DTI (SS-DTI) is acquired for open cranial, surgical position intraoperative DTI (iDTI). Readout-segmented (RS) EPI DTI (RS-DTI) has been reported to reduce such artifact but has not yet been evaluated in the intraoperative MRI (iMRI) environment. The authors evaluated the performance of RS versus SS EPI for DTI of the human brain in the iMRI setting.
Pre- and intraoperative 3-T 3D T1-weighted and 2D multislice RS-iDTI (called RESOLVE [readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains] on the Siemens platform) and SS-iDTI images were acquired in 22 adult patients undergoing intraaxial iMRI resections for suspected low-grade glioma (14; 64%), high-grade glioma (7; 32%), or focal cortical dysplasia. Regional susceptibility artifact, anatomical deviation relative to T1-weighted imaging, and tractographic output for surgically relevant tracts were compared between iDTI sequences as well as the intraoperative tract shifts from preoperative DTI.
RS-iDTI resulted in qualitatively less regional susceptibility artifact (resection cavity, orbitofrontal and anterior temporal cortices) and mean anatomical deviation in regions most prone to susceptibility artifact (RS-iDTI 2.7 ± 0.2 vs SS-iDTI 7.5 ± 0.4 mm) compared to SS-iDTI. Although tract reconstruction success did not significantly differ by DTI method, susceptibility artifact–related tractography failure (of at least 1 surgically relevant tract) occurred for SS-iDTI in 8/22 (36%) patients, and in 5 of these 8 patients RS-iDTI permitted successful reconstruction. Among cases with successful tractography for both sequences, maximal intersequence differences were substantial (mean 9.5 ± 5.7 mm, range −27.1 to 18.7 mm).
RS EPI enables higher quality and more accurate DTI for surgically relevant tractography of major white matter tracts in intraoperative, open cranium neurosurgical applications at 3 T.