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Kanwaljeet Garg and Rajinder Kumar

Spinal dermoid tumors are rare, benign, slow-growing tumors. Rupture of spinal dermoids, in contrast to cranial dermoids, is rarely reported. Rupture in the central canal alone is even more rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The presence of fat droplets within the central canal is unusual because the central canal is rudimentary in adults. The authors report 3 such cases and review the pertinent literature.

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Kanwaljeet Garg and Manmohan Singh

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Chinmaya Dash, Kanwaljeet Garg, and Shashank S. Kale

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Kanwaljeet Garg and Manmohan Singh

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Chinmaya Dash, Raghav Singla, Kanwaljeet Garg, and Bhawani Shanker Sharma

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Kanwaljeet Garg, Ankita Aggarwal, and Manmohan Singh

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Ambuj Kumar, Amandeep Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Shashwat Mishra, Kanwaljeet Garg, and Bhawani S. Sharma

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Harsh Deora, Kanwaljeet Garg, Manjul Tripathi, Shashwat Mishra, and Bipin Chaurasia


The evolution of the neurosurgical specialty in lower-middle-income countries is uniformly a narrative of continuous struggle for recognition and resource allocation. Therefore, it is not surprising that neurosurgical education and residency training in these countries is relatively nascent. Dr. Harvey Cushing in 1901 declared that he would specialize in neurosurgery and gave his greatest contribution to the advancement of neurosurgical education by laying the foundations of a structured residency training program. Similar efforts in lower-middle-income countries have been impeded by economic instability and the lack of well-established medical education paradigms. The authors sought to evaluate the residency programs in these nations by conducting a survey among the biggest stakeholders in these educational programs: the neurosurgical residents.


A questionnaire addressing various aspects of the residency program from a resident’s perspective was prepared with Google Forms and circulated among neurosurgery residents through social media and email groups. Where applicable, a 5-point Likert scale was used to grade the responses to the questions. Responses were collected from May to October 2019 and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Complete anonymity of the respondents was ensured to keep the responses unbiased.


A total of 195 responses were received, with 189 of them from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). The majority of these were from India (75%), followed by Brazil and Pakistan. An abiding concern among residents was lack of work hour regulations, inadequate exposure to emerging subspecialties, and the need for better hands-on training (> 60% each). Of the training institutions represented, 89% were offering more than 500 major neurosurgical surgeries per year, and 40% of the respondents never got exposure to any subspecialty. The popularity of electronic learning resources was discernible and most residents seemed to be satisfied with the existent system of evaluation. Significant differences (p < 0.05) among responses from India compared with those from other countries were found in terms of work hour regulations and subspecialty exposure.


It is prudent that concerned authorities in LMICs recognize and address the deficiencies perceived by neurosurgery residents in their training programs. A determined effort in this direction would be endorsed and assisted by a host of international neurosurgical societies when it is felt that domestic resources may not be adequate. Quality control and close scrutiny of training programs should ensure that the interests of neurosurgical trainees are best served.