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Remote video-based outcome measures of patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep brain stimulation using smartphones: a pilot study

Xinmeng Xu, Zhitong Zeng, Yijia Qi, Kang Ren, Chencheng Zhang, Bomin Sun, and Dianyou Li


To provide better postoperative healthcare for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who received deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery and to allow surgeons improved tracking of surgical outcomes, the authors sought to examine the applicability and feasibility of remote assessment using smartphones.


A disease management mobile application specifically for PD was used to perform the remote assessment of patients with PD who underwent DBS. Connection with patients was first established via a phone call or a social application, and instructions for completing the remote assessment were delivered. During the video-based virtual meeting, three nonmotor assessment scales measuring the quality of life and mental state, and a modified version of the Movement Disorder Society–sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, part III (MDS-UPDRS III) measuring motor abilities were evaluated. After the assessment, a report and the satisfaction questionnaire were sent to the patient.


Overall, 22 patients were recruited over a 4-week period. Among those, 18 patients completed the assessment on the mobile application. The mean duration was 41.3 minutes for video assessment and 17.5 minutes for nonmotor assessment via telephone. The mean estimated cost was 427.68 Chinese yuan (CNY) for an in-person visit and 20.91 CNY for a virtual visit (p < 0.001). The mean time estimate for an in-person visit was 5.51 hours and 0.68 hours for a virtual visit (p = 0.002). All patients reported satisfaction (77.78% very satisfied and 22.22% satisfied) with the virtual visit and were specifically impressed by the professionalism and great attitude of the physician assistant. The majority of patients agreed that the evaluation time was reasonable (50% totally agree, 44.44% agree, and 5.56% neither agree nor disagree) and all patients expressed interest in future virtual visits (61.11% very willingly and 38.89% willingly). No adverse events were observed during the virtual visit.


Innovation in remote assessment technologies was highly feasible for its transforming power in the clinical management of patients with PD who underwent DBS and research. Video-based remote assessment offered considerable time and resource reduction for both patients and doctors. It also increased safety and was a well-accepted, favored tool. Finally, the results of this study have shown there is potential to combine remote assessment tools with real-life clinical visits and other telemedical technologies to collectively benefit the postoperative healthcare of patients with PD undergoing DBS.

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Extended transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, cavernous sinus, and clivus: a single-center experience with 126 consecutive cases

Clinical article

Bing Zhao, Yu-Kui Wei, Gui-Lin Li, Yong-Ning Li, Yong Yao, Jun Kang, Wen-Bin Ma, Yi Yang, and Ren-Zhi Wang


The standard transsphenoidal approach has been successfully used to resect most pituitary adenomas. However, as a result of the limited exposure provided by this procedure, complete surgical removal of pituitary adenomas with parasellar or retrosellar extension remains problematic. By additional bone removal of the cranial base, the extended transsphenoidal approach provides better exposure to the parasellar and clival region compared with the standard approach. The authors describe their surgical experience with the extended transsphenoidal approach to remove pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, cavernous sinus (CS), and clivus.


Retrospective analysis was performed in 126 patients with pituitary adenomas that were surgically treated via the extended transsphenoidal approach between September 1999 and March 2008. There were 55 male and 71 female patients with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 12–75 years). There were 82 cases of macroadenoma and 44 cases of giant adenoma.


Gross-total resection was achieved in 78 patients (61.9%), subtotal resection in 43 (34.1%), and partial resection in 5 (4%). Postoperative complications included transient cerebrospinal rhinorrhea (7 cases), incomplete cranial nerve palsy (5), panhypopituitarism (5), internal carotid artery injury (2), monocular blindness (2), permanent diabetes insipidus (1), and perforation of the nasal septum (2). No intraoperative or postoperative death was observed.


The extended transsphenoidal approach provides excellent exposure to pituitary adenomas invading the anterior cranial base, CS, and clivus. This approach enhances the degree of tumor resection and keeps postoperative complications relatively low. However, radical resection of tumors that are firm, highly invasive to the CS, or invading multidirectionally remains a big challenge. This procedure not only allows better visualization of the tumor and the neurovascular structures but also provides significant working space under the microscope, which facilitates intraoperative manipulation. Preoperative imaging studies and new techniques such as the neuronavigation system and the endoscope improve the efficacy and safety of tumor resection.

Free access

Letter to the Editor. Ventriculosinus shunts for hydrocephalus in adults

Zhiqin Lin, Fuxin Lin, Xiaohui Ren, Zhongli Jiang, Dezhi Kang, and Yuanxiang Lin

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Abstracts of the 2017 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves Las Vegas, Nevada • March 8–11, 2017