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Zhiyuan Yu, Jun Zheng, Rui Guo, Chao You, Hao Li and Lu Ma

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Kang Guo, Lijun Heng, Haihong Zhang, Lei Ma, Hui Zhang and Dong Jia

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to identify the relevance between pneumocephalus and postoperative intracranial infections, as well as bacteriological characteristics and risk factors for intracranial infections, in patients with pituitary adenomas after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.

METHODS

In total, data from 251 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries from 2014 to 2018 were reviewed for preoperative comorbidities, intraoperative techniques, and postoperative care.

RESULTS

This retrospective study found 18 cases of postoperative pneumocephalus (7.17%), 9 CNS infections (3.59%), and 12 CSF leaks (4.78%). Of the patients with pneumocephalus, 5 (27.8%) had CNS infections. In patients with CNS infections, the culture results were positive in 7 cases and negative in 2 cases. The statistical analysis suggested that pneumocephalus (maximum bubble diameter of ≥ 1 cm), diaphragmatic defects (intraoperative CSF leak, Kelly grade ≥ 1), and a postoperative CSF leak are risk factors for postoperative CNS infections.

CONCLUSIONS

In pituitary adenoma patients who underwent pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries, intraoperative saddle reconstruction has a crucial role for patients with postoperative intracranial infections. Additionally, postoperative pneumocephalus plays an important role in predicting intracranial infections that must not be neglected. Therefore, neurosurgeons should pay close attention to the discovery of postoperative intracranial pneumocephalus because this factor is as important as a postoperative CSF leak. Pneumocephalus (maximum bubble diameter of ≥ 1 cm), diaphragmatic defects (an intraoperative CSF leak, Kelly grade ≥ 1), and a postoperative CSF leak were risk factors predictive of postoperative intracranial infections. In addition, it is essential that operative procedures be carefully performed to avoid diaphragmatic defects, to reduce exposure to the external environment, and to decrease patients’ suffering.

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Kang-Du Liu, Wen-Yuh Chung, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Ling-Wei Wang, Wan-You Guo and David Hung-Chi Pan

Object. The authors sought to determine the value of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of cavernous hemangiomas (CHs).

Methods. Between 1993 and 2002, a total of 125 patients with symptomatic CHs were treated with GKS. Ninety-seven patients presented with bleeding and 45 of these had at least two bleeding episodes. Thirteen patients presented with seizures combined with hemorrhage, and 15 patients presented with seizures alone. The mean margin dose of radiation was 12.1 Gy and the mean follow-up time was 5.4 years.

In the 112 patients who had bled the number of rebleeds after GKS was 32. These rebleeds were defined both clinically and based on magnetic resonance imaging for an annual rebleeding rate of 32 episodes/492 patient-years or 6.5%. Twenty-three of the 32 rebleeding episodes occurred within 2 years after GKS. Nine episodes occurred after 2 years; thus, the annual rebleeding rate after GKS was 10.3% for the first 2 years and 3.3% thereafter (p = 0.0038). In the 45 patients with at least two bleeding episodes before GKS, the rebleeding rate dropped from 29.2% (55 episodes/188 patient-years) before treatment to 5% (10 episodes/197 patient-years) after treatment (p < 0.0001). Among the 28 patients who presented with seizures, 15 (53%) had good outcomes (Engel Grades I and II). In this study of 125 patients, symptomatic radiation-induced complications developed in only three patients.

Conclusions. Gamma knife surgery can effectively reduce the rebleeding rate after the first symptomatic hemorrhage in patients with CH. In addition, GKS may be useful in reducing the severity of seizures in patients with CH.

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David Hung-chi Pan, Wen-yuh Chung, Wan-yuo Guo, Hsiu-mei Wu, Kang-du Liu, Cheng-ying Shiau and Ling-wei Wang

Object. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of radiosurgery for the treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) located in the region of the transverse—sigmoid sinus.

Methods. A series of 20 patients with DAVFs located in the transverse—sigmoid sinus, who were treated with gamma knife surgery between June 1995 and June 2000, was evaluated. According to the Cognard classification, the DAVF was Type I in four patients, Type IIa in seven, Type IIb in two, and combined Type IIa+b in seven. Nine patients had previously been treated with surgery and/or embolization, whereas 11 patients underwent radiosurgery alone. Radiosurgery was performed using multiple-isocenter irradiation of the delineated DAVF nidus. The target volume ranged from 1.7 to 40.7 cm3. The margin dose delivered to the nidus ranged from 16.5 to 19 Gy at a 50 to 70% isodose level.

Nineteen patients were available for follow-up review, the duration of which ranged from 6 to 58 months (median 19 months). Of the 19 patients, 14 (74%) were cured of their symptoms. At follow up, magnetic resonance imaging and/or angiography demonstrated complete obliteration of the DAVF in 11 patients (58%), subtotal obliteration (95% reduction of the nidus) in three (16%), and partial obliteration in another five (26%). There was no neurological complication related to the treatment. One patient experienced a recurrence of the DAVF 18 months after angiographic confirmation of total obliteration, and underwent a second course of radiosurgery.

Conclusions. Stereotactic radiosurgery provides a safe and effective option for the treatment of DAVFs involving the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. For some aggressive DAVFs with extensive retrograde cortical venous drainage, however, a combination of endovascular embolization and surgery may be necessary.

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Cheng-Chia Lee, David Hung-Chi Pan, Wen-Yuh Chung, Kang-Du Liu, Huai-Che Yang, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Wan-Yuo Guo and Yang-Hsin Shih

Object

The authors retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in patients with brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs). The CMs had bled repeatedly and placed the patients at high risk with respect to surgical intervention.

Methods

Between 1993 and 2010, 49 patients with symptomatic CMs were treated by GKS. The mean age in these patients was 37.8 years, and the predominant sex was female (59.2%). All 49 patients experienced at least 2 instances of repeated bleeding before GKS; these hemorrhages caused neurological deficits including cranial nerve deficits, hemiparesis, hemisensory deficits, spasticity, chorea or athetosis, and consciousness disturbance.

Results

The mean size of the CMs at the time of GKS was 3.2 cm3 (range 0.1–14.6 cm3). The mean radiation dose directed to the lesion was 11 Gy with an isodose level at 60.0%. The mean clinical and imaging follow-up time was 40.6 months (range 1.0–150.7 months). Forty-five patients participated in regularly scheduled follow-up. Twenty-nine patients (59.2%) were followed up for > 2 years, and 16 (32.7%) were followed up for < 2 years. The pre-GKS annual hemorrhage rate was 31.3% (69 symptomatic hemorrhages during a total of 220.3 patient-years). After GKS, 3 episodes of symptomatic hemorrhage were observed within the first 2 years of follow-up (4.29% annual hemorrhage rate), and 3 episodes of symptomatic hemorrhage were observed after the first 2 years of follow-up (3.64% annual hemorrhage rate). In this study of 49 patients, symptomatic radiation-induced complications developed in only 2 patients (4.1%; cyst formation in 1 patient and perifocal edema with neurological deficits in the other patient). There were no deaths in this group.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is effective in reducing the rate of recurrent hemorrhage. In the authors' experience, it was possible to control bleeding using a low-dose treatment. In addition, there were few symptomatic radiation-induced complications. As a result, the authors believe that GKS is a good alternative treatment for brainstem CMs.

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Chih-Chun Wu, Wan-Yuo Guo, Wen-Yuh Chung, Hisu-Mei Wu, Chung-Jung Lin, Cheng-Chia Lee, Kang-Du Liu and Huai-che Yang

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is a promising treatment modality for patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs), but a small percentage of patients have persistent postradiosurgical tumor growth. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and quantitative MRI features of VS as predictors of long-term tumor control after GKS.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study of all patients with VS treated with GKS using the Leksell Gamma Knife Unit between 2005 and 2013 at their institution. A total of 187 patients who had a minimum of 24 months of clinical and radiological assessment after radiosurgery were included in this study. Those who underwent a craniotomy with tumor removal before and after GKS were excluded. Study patients comprised 85 (45.5%) males and 102 (54.5%) females, with a median age of 52.2 years (range 20.4–82.3 years). Tumor volumes, enhancing patterns, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured by region of interest (ROI) analysis of the whole tumor by serial MRI before and after GKS.

RESULTS

The median follow-up period was 60.8 months (range 24–128.9 months), and the median treated tumor volume was 3.54 cm3 (0.1–16.2 cm3). At last follow-up, imaging studies indicated that 150 tumors (80.2%) showed decreased tumor volume, 20 (10.7%) had stabilized, and 17 (9.1%) continued to grow following radiosurgery. The postradiosurgical outcome was not significantly correlated with pretreatment volumes or postradiosurgical enhancing patterns. Tumors that showed regression within the initial 12 months following radiosurgery were more likely to have a larger volume reduction ratio at last follow-up than those that did not (volume reduction ratio 55% vs 23.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Compared with solid VSs, cystic VSs were more likely to regress or stabilize in the initial postradiosurgical 6–12-month period and during extended follow-up. Cystic VSs exhibited a greater volume reduction ratio at last follow-up (cystic vs solid: 67.6% ± 24.1% vs 31.8% ± 51.9%; p < 0.001). The mean preradiosurgical maximum ADC (ADCmax) values of all VSs were significantly higher for those with tumor regression or stabilization at last follow-up compared with those with progression (2.391 vs 1.826 × 10−3 mm2/sec; p = 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS

Loss of central enhancement after radiosurgery was a common phenomenon, but it did not correlate with tumor volume outcome. Preradiosurgical MRI features including cystic components and ADCmax values can be helpful as predictors of treatment outcome.

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Hsiu-Mei Wu, David Hung-Chi Pan, Wen-Yuh Chung, Wan-Yuo Guo, Kang-Du Liu, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Ling-Wei Wang and Shih-Jen Chen

Object

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CSDAVFs) and other intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (ODAVFs).

Methods

Among the 238 GKS procedures performed for intracranial DAVFs in the authors' institute, 227 cases (146 CSDAVFs and 81 OIDAVFs) with clinical follow up formed the database from which the authors determined clinical outcome and the incidence of untoward events. One hundred ninety-five cases (118 CSDAVFs and 77 ODAVFs) with imaging follow up formed the database from which the authors determined the imaging results.

Older age, female sex, higher incidence of diabetes, and shorter duration of symptoms were noted more in cases of CSDAVF than in ODAVFs. Most patients had symptomatic improvement after GKS. A symptomatic cure was observed in one patient with CSDAVFs as early as 6 weeks. The cumulative cure rate based on follow-up angiography of CSDAVFs approached 75% at 24 months, which was much better than that of ODAVFs (approximately 50% at 24 months). A neuroimaging-based cure lagged behind that of the clinical symptoms. Overall, there were only two nonfatal intracerebral hemorrhages during the follow-up period, both occurring less than 1 week after GKS and both being Cognard Type IIa+b with initial aggressive symptoms. Transient deterioration of neurological status without hemorrhage was noted in six patients with ODAVFs. Thrombosis of the superior ophthalmic vein occurred in 11 patients with CSDAVFs, in two of whom there were unilateral visual impairments. There were three cranial nerve neuropathies: transient in one CSDAVF and one ODAVF involving the jugular foramen, and another one was a CSDAVF previously treated by conventional radiotherapy.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery provides a safe and effective option for treatment of intracranial DAVFs with a low risk of complications. In cases of DAVFs with benign clinical presentation, GKS can serve as a primary treatment. In some cases of aggressive DAVFs in which there is extensive retrograde cortical vein drainage, combined treatment with embolization or surgery is suggested.

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Dennis R. Buis and W. Peter Vandertop

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Cheng-Chia Lee, Jason P. Sheehan, Hideyuki Kano, Berkcan Akpinar, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, Wan-Yuo Guo, L. Dade Lunsford and Kang-Du Liu

OBJECTIVE

Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare vascular tumors. A direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage and incomplete tumor resection. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to microsurgery, outcome studies are few. Authors of the present study evaluated the role of SRS for CSH.

METHODS

An international multicenter study was conducted to review outcome data in 31 patients with CSH. Eleven patients had initial microsurgery before SRS, and the other 20 patients (64.5%) underwent Gamma Knife SRS as the primary management for their CSH. Median age at the time of radiosurgery was 47 years, and 77.4% of patients had cranial nerve dysfunction before SRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12.6 Gy (range 12–19 Gy) at a median isodose of 55%.

RESULTS

Tumor regression was confirmed by imaging in all 31 patients, and all patients had greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume at 6 months post-SRS. No patient had delayed tumor growth, new cranial neuropathy, visual function deterioration, adverse radiation effects, or hypopituitarism after SRS. Twenty-four patients had presented with cranial nerve disorders before SRS, and 6 (25%) of them had gradual improvement. Four (66.7%) of the 6 patients with orbital symptoms had symptomatic relief at the last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery was effective in reducing the volume of CSH and attaining long-term tumor control in all patients at a median of 40 months. The authors' experience suggests that SRS is a reasonable primary and adjuvant treatment modality for patients in whom a CSH is diagnosed.

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Wen-Yuh Chung, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Kang-Du Liu, Wan-Yuo Guo, Ling-Wei Wang and David Hung-Chi Pan

Object

The effectiveness and safety of radiosurgery for small- to medium-sized cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have been well established. However, the management for large cerebral AVMs remains a great challenge to neurosurgeons. In the past 5 years the authors performed preplanned staged radiosurgery to treat extra-large cerebral AVMs.

Methods

An extra-large cerebral AVM is defined as one with nidus volume > 40 ml. The nidus volume of cerebral AVM is measured from the dose plan—that is, as being the volume contained within the best-fit prescription isodose. From January 2003 to December 2007, the authors treated 6 patients with extra-large AVMs by preplanned staged GKS. Staged radiosurgery is implemented by rigid transformation with translation and rotation of coordinates between 2 stages. The average radiation-targeted volume was 60 ml (range 47–72 ml). The presenting symptoms were seizure in 4 patients and a bleeding episode in 2. One patient had undergone a previous craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma. The mean interval between the 2 radiosurgical sessions was 6.9 months (range 4.5–9.1 months). The prescribed marginal dose given to the nidus volume in each stage ranged from 16 to 18.6 Gy. The expected marginal dose of total nidus was 17–19 Gy. Regular follow-up MR imaging was performed every 6 months. The mean follow-up period was 28 months (range 12–54 months).

Results

Most of the patients exhibited clinical improvement: relief of headache and reduced frequency of seizure attack. All patients had significant regression of nidus observed on MR imaging follow-up. Two patients had angiogram-confirmed complete obliteration of the nidus 45 and 60 months after the second-stage radiosurgical session. One patient experienced minor bleeding 8 months after the second-stage radiosurgery with mild headache. She had satisfactory recovery without clinical neurological deficit after conservative treatment.

Conclusions

These preliminary results indicate that staged radiosurgery is a practical strategy to treat patients with extra-large cerebral AVMs. It takes longer to obliterate the AVMs. The observed high signal T2 changes after the radiosurgery appeared clinically insignificant in 6 patients followed up for an average of 28 months. Longer follow-up is necessary to confirm its long-term safety.