Kamran Aghayev and Frank D. Vrionis
Matthias Setzer, Mohamed Eleraky, Wesley M. Johnson, Kamran Aghayev, Nam D. Tran and Frank D. Vrionis
The objective of this study was to compare the stiffness and range of motion (ROM) of 4 cervical spine constructs and the intact condition. The 4 constructs consisted of 3-level anterior cervical discectomy with anterior plating, 1-level discectomy and 1-level corpectomy with anterior plating, 2-level corpectomy with anterior plating, and 2-level corpectomy with anterior plating and posterior fixation.
Eight human cadaveric fresh-frozen cervical spines from C2–T2 were used. Three-dimensional motion analysis with an optical tracking device was used to determine motion following various reconstruction methods. The specimens were tested in the following conditions: 1) intact; 2) segmental construct with discectomies at C4–5, C5–6, and C6–7, with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interbody cage and anterior plate; 3) segmental construct with discectomy at C6–7 and corpectomy of C-5, with PEEK interbody graft at the discectomy level and a titanium cage at the corpectomy level; 4) corpectomy at C-5 and C-6, with titanium cage and an anterior cervical plate; and 5) corpectomy at C-5 and C-6, with titanium cage and an anterior cervical plate, and posterior lateral mass screw-rod system from C-4 to C-7. All specimens underwent a pure moment application of 2 Nm with regards to flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation.
In all tested motions the statistical comparison was significant between the intact condition and the 2-level corpectomy with anterior plating and posterior fixation construct. All other statistical comparisons between the instrumented constructs were not statistically significant except between the 3-level discectomy with anterior plating and the 2-level corpectomy with anterior plating in axial rotation. There were no statistically significant differences between the 1-level discectomy and 1-level corpectomy with anterior plating and the 2-level corpectomy with anterior plating in any tested motion. There was also no statistical significance between the 3-level discectomy with anterior plating and the 2-level corpectomy with anterior plating and posterior fixation.
This study demonstrates that segmental plate fixation (3-level discectomy) affords the same stiffness and ROM as circumferential fusion in 2-level cervical spine corpectomy in the immediate postoperative setting. This obviates the need for staged circumferential procedures for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Given that the posterior segmental instrumentation confers significant stability to a multilevel cervical corpectomy, the surgeon should strongly consider the placement of segmental posterior instrumentation to significantly improve the overall stability of the fusion construct after a 2-level cervical corpectomy.
Kamran Aghayev, Ercan Bal, Tural Rahimli, Melike Mut, Serdar Balcı, Frank Vrionis and Nejat Akalan
Aquaporins (aqp) are protein channels providing water transport across cell membranes. The main member of this family expressed in the CNS is aqp-4. The pattern and amount of expression of this channel suggest a dominant role in bulk water movement into the nervous tissue. It has also been shown to play a role in several water balance disorders in the CNS. In this study, the authors investigated the possible role of aqp-4 in syringomyelia.
Twenty-five male Wistar-Hannover rats were divided into experimental (20 rats) and control (5 rats) groups. Syringomyelia was induced in the experimental group by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. Eight weeks later, the animals were killed, and their spinal cords were removed. Central canal dilations were noted in all experimental animals. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate aqp-4 expression.
Both groups demonstrated positive immunoreactive signals to aqp-4. Western blot analysis revealed a slight decrease in the mean aqp-4 value in the experimental group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed a similar pattern and intensity of aqp-4 staining in both groups.
The results of this study indicate that aqp-4 most likely does not play a major role in chronic syringomyelia. Its slight downregulation during the initial stage of syrinx formation is possibly a compensatory mechanism. This effect is not present during the late stage of syringomyelia, and aqp-4 is most likely not involved in the pathophysiology of syrinx cavity formation.
Andreas K. Filis, Kamran Aghayev, Bernhard Schaller, Jennifer Luksza and Frank D. Vrionis
Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are established treatment methods to reinforce fractured vertebral bodies. In cases of previous pedicle screw instrumentation, vertebral body cannulation may be challenging. The authors describe, for the first time, an approach through the adjacent inferior vertebra and disc space in the thoracic spine for cement augmentation. A 78-year-old woman underwent posterior fusion with pedicle screws after vertebrectomy and reconstruction with cement and Steinmann pins for a pathological T-7 fracture. Two months later she developed a compression fracture of the vertebral body at the lower part of the construct, and a vertebroplasty was performed. Because a standard transpedicular route was not available, an inferior transdiscal trajectory was used for the cement injection. A 73-year-old man with a history of rheumatoid arthritis underwent cervicothoracic fusion posteriorly for subluxation. He developed pain in the upper thoracic area, and the authors performed a transdiscal vertebroplasty at T-2. The standard transpedicular route was not possible. The vertebral body was satisfactorily filled up with cement. Clinically both patients benefited significantly in terms of back pain and showed an uneventful follow-up of 3 months. Transdiscal vertebroplasty can achieve good results in the mid- and upper thoracic spine when a standard transpedicular trajectory is not possible, and can therefore be a good alternative in select cases.
Sabrina A. Gonzalez-Blohm, James J. Doulgeris, Kamran Aghayev, William E. Lee III, Andrey Volkov and Frank D. Vrionis
In this paper the authors evaluate through in vitro biomechanical testing the performance of an interspinous fusion device as a stand-alone device, after lumbar decompression surgery, and as supplemental fixation to expandable cages in a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) construct.
Nine L3–4 human cadaveric spines were biomechanically tested under the following conditions: 1) intact/control; 2) L3–4 left hemilaminotomy with partial discectomy (injury); 3) interspinous spacer (ISS); 4) bilateral pedicle screw system (BPSS); 5) bilateral hemilaminectomy, discectomy, and expandable posterior interbody cages with ISS (PLIF-ISS); and 6) PLIF-BPSS. Each test consisted of 100 N of axial preload with ± 7.5 Nm of torque in flexion-extension, right/left lateral bending, and right/left axial rotation. Significant changes in range of motion (ROM), neutral zone stiffness (NZS), elastic zone stiffness (EZS), and energy loss (EL) were explored among conditions using nonparametric Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed-rank comparisons (p ≤ 0.05).
The injury increased ROM in flexion (p = 0.01), left bending (p = 0.03), and right/left rotation (p < 0.01) and also decreased NZS in flexion (p = 0.01) and extension (p < 0.01). Both the ISS and BPSS reduced flexion-extension ROM and increased flexion-extension stiffness (NZS and EZS) with respect to the injury and intact conditions (p < 0.05), but the ISS condition provided greater resistance than BPSS in extension for ROM, NZS, and EZS (p < 0.01). The BPSS increased the rigidity (ROM, NZS, and EZS) of the intact model in lateral bending and axial rotation (p ≤ 0.01), except in EZS for left rotation (p = 0.23, Friedman test). The incorporation of posterior cages marginally increased (p = 0.05) the EZS of the BPSS construct in flexion but these interbody devices provided significant stability to the ISS construct in lateral bending and axial rotation for ROM (p = 0.02), in lateral bending for NZS (p = 0.02), and in flexion/axial rotation for EZS (p ≤ 0.03); however, both PLIF constructs demonstrated equivalent ROM and stiffness (p ≥ 0.16), except in lateral bending where the PLIF-BPSS was more stable (p = 0.02). In terms of EL, the injury increased EL in flexion-extension (p = 0.02), the ISS increased EL for lateral bending and axial rotation (p ≤ 0.03), and the BPSS decreased EL in lateral bending (p = 0.02), with respect to the intact condition. The PLIF-ISS decreased lateral bending EL with respect to the ISS condition (p = 0.02), but not enough to be smaller or, at least, equivalent, to that of the PLIF-BPSS construct (p = 0.02).
The ISS may be a suitable device to provide immediate flexion-extension balance after a unilateral laminotomy, but the BPSS provides greater immediate stability in lateral bending and axial rotation motions. Both PLIF constructs performed equivalently in flexion-extension and axial rotation, but the PLIF-BPSS construct is more resistant to lateral bending motions. Further biomechanical and clinical evidence is required to strongly support the recommendation of a stand-alone interspinous fusion device or as supplemental fixation to expandable posterior interbody cages.
Sabrina A. Gonzalez-Blohm, James J. Doulgeris, Kamran Aghayev, William E. Lee III, Jake Laun and Frank D. Vrionis
Through in vitro biomechanical testing, the authors compared the performance of a vertically expandable lateral lumbar interbody cage (EC) under two different torque-controlled expansions (1.5 and 3.0 Nm) and with respect to an equivalent lateral lumbar static cage (SC) with and without pedicle screw fixation.
Eleven cadaveric human L2–3 segments were evaluated under the following conditions: 1) intact; 2) discectomy; 3) EC under 1.50 Nm of torque expansion (EC-1.5Nm); 4) EC under 3.00 Nm of torque expansion (EC-3.0Nm); 5) SC; and 6) SC with a bilateral pedicle screw system (SC+BPSS). Load-displacement behavior was evaluated for each condition using a combination of 100 N of axial preload and 7.5 Nm of torque in flexion and extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). Range of motion (ROM), neutral zone stiffness (NZS), and elastic zone stiffness (EZS) were statistically compared among conditions using post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank comparisons after Friedman tests, with a significance level of 0.05. Additionally, any cage height difference between interbody devices was evaluated. When radiographic subsidence was observed, the specimen's data were not considered for the analysis.
The final cage height in the EC-1.5Nm condition (12.1 ± 0.9 mm) was smaller (p < 0.001) than that in the EC-3.0Nm (13.9 ± 1.1 mm) and SC (13.4 ± 0.8 mm) conditions. All instrumentation reduced (p < 0.01) ROM with respect to the injury and increased (p ≤ 0.01) NZS in flexion, extension, and LB as well as EZS in flexion, LB, and AR. When comparing the torque expansions, the EC-3.0Nm condition had smaller (p < 0.01) FE and AR ROM and greater (p ≤ 0.04) flexion NZS, extension EZS, and AR EZS. The SC condition performed equivalently (p ≥ 0.10) to both EC conditions in terms of ROM, NZS, and EZS, except for EZS in AR, in which a marginal (p = 0.05) difference was observed with respect to the EC-3.0Nm condition. The SC+BPSS was the most rigid construct in terms of ROM and stiffness, except for 1) LB ROM, in which it was comparable (p = 0.08) with that of the EC-1.5Nm condition; 2) AR NZS, in which it was comparable (p > 0.66, Friedman test) with that of all other constructs; and 3) AR EZS, in which it was comparable with that of the EC-1.5Nm (p = 0.56) and SC (p = 0.08) conditions.
A 3.0-Nm torque expansion of a lateral interbody cage provides greater immediate stability in FE and AR than a 1.5-Nm torque expansion. Moreover, the expandable device provides stability comparable with that of an equivalent (in size, shape, and bone-interface material) SC. Specifically, the SC+BPSS construct was the most stable in FE motion. Even though an EC may seem a better option given the minimal tissue disruption during its implantation, there may be a greater chance of endplate collapse by over-distracting the disc space because of the minimal haptic feedback from the expansion.