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Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Michael J. Lang, Kaitlyn Barkley, Guilherme Barros, Justin Turpin, Ahmad Sweid, Robert M. Starke, Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine the predictors of late neurological and hospital-acquired medical complications (HACs) in patients with low-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 424 patients with low-grade aSAH admitted to their institution from 2008 to 2015. Data collected included patient comorbidities, Hunt and Hess (HH) grade, ICU length of stay (LOS), and complications. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors for neurological and hospital-associated complications.

RESULTS

Out of 424 patients, 50 (11.8%) developed neurological complications after the first week, with a mean ICU stay of 16.3 ± 6.5 days. Of the remaining 374 patients without late neurological complications, 83 (22.2%) developed late HACs with a mean LOS of 15.1 ± 7.6 days, while those without medical complications stayed 11.8 ± 6.2 days (p = 0.001). Of the 83 patients, 55 (66.3%) did not have any HACs in the first week. Smoking (p = 0.062), history of cardiac disease (p = 0.043), HH grade III (p = 0.012), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (p = 0.012), external ventricular drain (EVD) placement (p = 0.002), and early pneumonia/urinary tract infection (UTI)/deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (p = 0.001) were independently associated with late HACs. Logistic regression showed early pneumonia/UTI/DVT (p = 0.026) and increased HH grade (p = 0.057) to be significant risk factors for late medical complications.

CONCLUSIONS

While an extended ICU admission allows closer monitoring, low-grade aSAH patients develop HACs despite being at low risk for neurological complications. The characteristics of low-grade aSAH patients who would benefit from early discharge are reported in detail.