Andrew E. Sloan
Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Scott L. Parker, Alessandro Olivi, and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
Seizures are a common presenting symptom and cause of morbidity for patients with malignant astrocytomas. The authors set out to determine preoperative seizure characteristics, effects of surgery on seizure control, and factors associated with prolonged seizure control in patients with malignant astrocytomas.
Cases involving adult patients who underwent primary resection of a hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 1996 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was used to identify associations with pre-operative seizures, and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify associations with prolonged seizure control following resection.
Of the 648 patients (505 with GBM, 143 with AA) in this series, 153 (24%) presented with seizures. The factors more commonly associated with preoperative seizures were AA pathology (p = 0.03), temporal lobe involvement (p = 0.04), and cortical location (p = 0.04), while the factors less commonly associated with preoperative seizures were greater age (p = 0.03) and larger tumor size (p ≤ 0.001). Among those patients with a history of seizures, outcome 12 months after surgery was Engel Class I (seizure free) in 77%, Class II (rare seizures) in 12%, Class III (meaningful improvement) in 6%, and Class IV (no improvement) in 5%. Postoperative seizures were rare in patients without a history of preoperative seizures. The factor positively associated with prolonged seizure control was increased Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.002), while the factors negatively associated with seizure control were preoperative uncontrolled seizures (p = 0.03) and parietal lobe involvement (p = 0.005). Seizure recurrence in patients with postoperative seizure control was independently associated with tumor recurrence (p = 0.006).
The identification and consideration of factors associated with prolonged seizure control may help guide treatment strategies aimed at improving the quality of life for patients with malignant astrocytomas.
Metastatic spinal cord tumors
Mark N. Hadley
Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Courtney Pendleton, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, and Ziya L. Gokaslan
Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is a relatively common and debilitating complication of metastatic disease that often results in neurological deficits. Recent studies have supported decompressive surgery over radiation therapy for patients who present with MESCC. These studies, however, have grouped all patients with different histological types of metastatic disease into the same study population. The differential outcomes for patients with different histological types of metastatic disease therefore remain unknown.
An institutional database of patients undergoing decompressive surgery for MESCC at an academic tertiary-care institution between 1996 and 2006 was retrospectively reviewed. Patients with primary lung, breast, prostate, kidney, or gastrointestinal (GI) cancer or melanoma were identified. Fisher exact and log-rank analyses were used to compare pre-, peri-, and postoperative variables and survival for patients with these different types of primary cancers.
Twenty-seven patients with primary lung cancer, 26 with breast cancer, 20 with prostate cancer, 21 with kidney cancer, 13 with GI cancer, and 7 with melanoma were identified and categorized. All of these patients were followed up for a mean ± SD of 10.8 ± 3.8 months following surgery. Patients with primary lung and prostate cancers were typically older than patients with other types of primary cancers. Patients with prostate cancer had the shortest duration of symptoms and more commonly presented with motor deficits, while patients with breast cancer more commonly had cervical spine involvement and compression fractures. For all histological types, > 90% of patients retained the ability to ambulate following surgery. However, the group with the highest percentage of patients who regained ambulatory function after decompressive surgery was the lung cancer group. Patients with breast or kidney cancer and those with melanoma had the highest median duration of survival following decompressive surgery.
The present study identifies differences in presenting symptoms, operative course, perioperative complications, long-term ambulatory outcomes, and duration of survival for patients with lung, breast, prostate, kidney, and GI cancers and melanoma. This understanding may allow better risk stratification for patients with MESCC.
Joshua Materi, David Mampre, Jeff Ehresman, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, and Kaisorn L. Chaichana
The extent of resection has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with meningiomas. However, resection can be complicated by constraining local anatomy, leading to subtotal resections. An understanding of the natural history of residual tumors is necessary to better guide postsurgical management and minimize recurrence. This study seeks to identify predictors of recurrence and high growth rate following subtotal resection of intracranial meningiomas.
Adult patients who underwent primary surgical resection of a WHO grade I meningioma at a tertiary care institution from 2007–2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Volumetric tumor measurements were made on patients with subtotal resections. Stepwise multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with time to recurrence, as well as stepwise multivariate regression analyses to assess for factors associated with high postoperative growth rate.
Of the 141 patients (18%) who underwent radiographic subtotal resection of an intracranial meningioma during the reviewed period, 74 (52%) suffered a recurrence, in which the median (interquartile range, IQR) time to recurrence was 14 (IQR 6–34) months. Among those tumors subtotally resected, the median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes were 17.19 cm3 (IQR 7.47–38.43 cm3) and 2.31 cm3 (IQR 0.98–5.16 cm3), which corresponded to a percentage resection of 82% (IQR 68%–93%). Postoperatively, the median growth rate was 0.09 cm3/year (IQR 0–1.39 cm3/year). Factors associated with recurrence in multivariate analysis included preoperative tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR] 1.008,95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002–1.013, p = 0.008), falcine location (HR 2.215, 95% CI 1.179–4.161, p = 0.021), tentorial location (HR 2.410, 95% CI 1.203–4.829, p = 0.024), and African American race (HR 1.811, 95% CI 1.042–3.146, p = 0.044). Residual volume (RV) was associated with high absolute annual growth rate (odds ratio [OR] 1.175, 95% CI 1.078–1.280, p < 0.0001), with the maximum RV benefit at < 5 cm3 (OR 4.056, 95% CI 1.675–9.822, p = 0.002).
By identifying predictors of recurrence and growth rate, this study helps identify potential patients with a high chance of recurrence following subtotal resection, which are those with large preoperative tumor volume, falcine location, tentorial location, and African American race. Higher RVs were associated with tumors with higher postoperative growth rates. Recurrences typically occurred 14 months after surgery.
Henry Ruiz-Garcia, Kelly Gassie, Lina Marenco-Hillembrand, Angela M. Donaldson, and Kaisorn L. Chaichana
Basilar invagination is a challenging dilemma that neurosurgeons may face. Herein, we present a case of a 65-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and status post a previous C4–7 ACDF who presented to our clinic with progressive weakness in her bilateral upper and lower extremities. Imaging revealed basilar invagination. She underwent an endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy followed by an occiput–C6 fusion. We present the endonasal portion of the procedure and have highlighted the technical nuances of this approach. Our goal is to provide better insight into this surgical strategy when dealing with basilar invagination.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/aeMbvI_zYQA