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  • Author or Editor: Kaisorn L. Chaichana x
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Andrew E. Sloan

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Editorial

Metastatic spinal cord tumors

Mark N. Hadley

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Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Scott L. Parker, Alessandro Olivi and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa

Object

Seizures are a common presenting symptom and cause of morbidity for patients with malignant astrocytomas. The authors set out to determine preoperative seizure characteristics, effects of surgery on seizure control, and factors associated with prolonged seizure control in patients with malignant astrocytomas.

Methods

Cases involving adult patients who underwent primary resection of a hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 1996 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was used to identify associations with pre-operative seizures, and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify associations with prolonged seizure control following resection.

Results

Of the 648 patients (505 with GBM, 143 with AA) in this series, 153 (24%) presented with seizures. The factors more commonly associated with preoperative seizures were AA pathology (p = 0.03), temporal lobe involvement (p = 0.04), and cortical location (p = 0.04), while the factors less commonly associated with preoperative seizures were greater age (p = 0.03) and larger tumor size (p ≤ 0.001). Among those patients with a history of seizures, outcome 12 months after surgery was Engel Class I (seizure free) in 77%, Class II (rare seizures) in 12%, Class III (meaningful improvement) in 6%, and Class IV (no improvement) in 5%. Postoperative seizures were rare in patients without a history of preoperative seizures. The factor positively associated with prolonged seizure control was increased Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.002), while the factors negatively associated with seizure control were preoperative uncontrolled seizures (p = 0.03) and parietal lobe involvement (p = 0.005). Seizure recurrence in patients with postoperative seizure control was independently associated with tumor recurrence (p = 0.006).

Conclusions

The identification and consideration of factors associated with prolonged seizure control may help guide treatment strategies aimed at improving the quality of life for patients with malignant astrocytomas.

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Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Courtney Pendleton, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky and Ziya L. Gokaslan

Object

Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is a relatively common and debilitating complication of metastatic disease that often results in neurological deficits. Recent studies have supported decompressive surgery over radiation therapy for patients who present with MESCC. These studies, however, have grouped all patients with different histological types of metastatic disease into the same study population. The differential outcomes for patients with different histological types of metastatic disease therefore remain unknown.

Methods

An institutional database of patients undergoing decompressive surgery for MESCC at an academic tertiary-care institution between 1996 and 2006 was retrospectively reviewed. Patients with primary lung, breast, prostate, kidney, or gastrointestinal (GI) cancer or melanoma were identified. Fisher exact and log-rank analyses were used to compare pre-, peri-, and postoperative variables and survival for patients with these different types of primary cancers.

Results

Twenty-seven patients with primary lung cancer, 26 with breast cancer, 20 with prostate cancer, 21 with kidney cancer, 13 with GI cancer, and 7 with melanoma were identified and categorized. All of these patients were followed up for a mean ± SD of 10.8 ± 3.8 months following surgery. Patients with primary lung and prostate cancers were typically older than patients with other types of primary cancers. Patients with prostate cancer had the shortest duration of symptoms and more commonly presented with motor deficits, while patients with breast cancer more commonly had cervical spine involvement and compression fractures. For all histological types, > 90% of patients retained the ability to ambulate following surgery. However, the group with the highest percentage of patients who regained ambulatory function after decompressive surgery was the lung cancer group. Patients with breast or kidney cancer and those with melanoma had the highest median duration of survival following decompressive surgery.

Conclusions

The present study identifies differences in presenting symptoms, operative course, perioperative complications, long-term ambulatory outcomes, and duration of survival for patients with lung, breast, prostate, kidney, and GI cancers and melanoma. This understanding may allow better risk stratification for patients with MESCC.

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Joshua Materi, David Mampre, Jeff Ehresman, Jordina Rincon-Torroella and Kaisorn L. Chaichana

OBJECTIVE

The extent of resection has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with meningiomas. However, resection can be complicated by constraining local anatomy, leading to subtotal resections. An understanding of the natural history of residual tumors is necessary to better guide postsurgical management and minimize recurrence. This study seeks to identify predictors of recurrence and high growth rate following subtotal resection of intracranial meningiomas.

METHODS

Adult patients who underwent primary surgical resection of a WHO grade I meningioma at a tertiary care institution from 2007–2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Volumetric tumor measurements were made on patients with subtotal resections. Stepwise multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with time to recurrence, as well as stepwise multivariate regression analyses to assess for factors associated with high postoperative growth rate.

RESULTS

Of the 141 patients (18%) who underwent radiographic subtotal resection of an intracranial meningioma during the reviewed period, 74 (52%) suffered a recurrence, in which the median (interquartile range, IQR) time to recurrence was 14 (IQR 6–34) months. Among those tumors subtotally resected, the median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes were 17.19 cm3 (IQR 7.47–38.43 cm3) and 2.31 cm3 (IQR 0.98–5.16 cm3), which corresponded to a percentage resection of 82% (IQR 68%–93%). Postoperatively, the median growth rate was 0.09 cm3/year (IQR 0–1.39 cm3/year). Factors associated with recurrence in multivariate analysis included preoperative tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR] 1.008,95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002–1.013, p = 0.008), falcine location (HR 2.215, 95% CI 1.179–4.161, p = 0.021), tentorial location (HR 2.410, 95% CI 1.203–4.829, p = 0.024), and African American race (HR 1.811, 95% CI 1.042–3.146, p = 0.044). Residual volume (RV) was associated with high absolute annual growth rate (odds ratio [OR] 1.175, 95% CI 1.078–1.280, p < 0.0001), with the maximum RV benefit at < 5 cm3 (OR 4.056, 95% CI 1.675–9.822, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

By identifying predictors of recurrence and growth rate, this study helps identify potential patients with a high chance of recurrence following subtotal resection, which are those with large preoperative tumor volume, falcine location, tentorial location, and African American race. Higher RVs were associated with tumors with higher postoperative growth rates. Recurrences typically occurred 14 months after surgery.

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Rui Sui and Haozhe Piao

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Ammar Shaikhouni and E. Antonio Chiocca

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Henry Ruiz-Garcia, Kelly Gassie, Lina Marenco-Hillembrand, Angela M. Donaldson and Kaisorn L. Chaichana

Basilar invagination is a challenging dilemma that neurosurgeons may face. Herein, we present a case of a 65-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and status post a previous C4–7 ACDF who presented to our clinic with progressive weakness in her bilateral upper and lower extremities. Imaging revealed basilar invagination. She underwent an endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy followed by an occiput–C6 fusion. We present the endonasal portion of the procedure and have highlighted the technical nuances of this approach. Our goal is to provide better insight into this surgical strategy when dealing with basilar invagination.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/aeMbvI_zYQA

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Debraj Mukherjee, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Oran Aaronson, Joseph S. Cheng and Matthew J. McGirt

Object

Malignant primary osseous spinal neoplasms are aggressive tumors that remain associated with poor outcomes despite aggressive multidisciplinary treatment measures. To date, prognosis for patients with these tumors is based on results from small single-center patient series and controlled trials. Large population-based observational studies are lacking. To assess national trends in histology-specific survival, the authors reviewed patient survival data spanning 30 years (1973–2003) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry, a US population-based cancer registry.

Methods

The SEER registry was queried to identify cases of histologically confirmed primary spinal chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, or Ewing sarcoma using coding from the International Classification of Disease for Oncology, Third Edition. Association of survival with histology, metastasis status, tumor site, and year of diagnosis was assessed using Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis.

Results

A total of 1892 patients were identified with primary osseous spinal neoplasms (414 with chordomas, 579 with chondrosarcomas, 430 with osteosarcomas, and 469 with Ewing sarcomas). Chordomas presented in older patients (60 ± 17 years; p < 0.01) whereas Ewing sarcoma presented in younger patients (19 ± 11 years; p < 0.01) compared with patients with all other tumors. The relative incidence of each tumor type remained similar per decade from 1973 to 2003. African Americans comprised a significantly greater proportion of patients with osteosarcomas than other tumors (9.6% vs 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.01). Compared with the sacrum, the mobile spine was more likely to be the site of tumor location for chordomas than for all other tumors (47% vs 23%, respectively; p < 0.05). Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were 3 times more likely than chondrosarcoma and chordoma to present with metastasis (31% vs 8%, respectively). Resection was performed more frequently for chordoma (88%) and chondrosarcoma (89%) than for osteosarcoma (61%) and Ewing sarcoma (53%). Overall median survival was histology-specific (osteosarcoma, 11 months; Ewing sarcoma, 26 months; chondrosarcoma, 37 months; chordoma, 50 months) and significantly worse in patients with metastasis at presentation for all tumor types. Survival did not significantly differ as a function of site (mobile spine vs sacrum/pelvis) for any tumor type, but more recent year of diagnosis was associated with improved survival for isolated spinal Ewing sarcoma (hazard ration [HR] 0.95; p = 0.001), chondrosarcoma (HR 0.98; p = 0.009), and chordoma (HR 0.98; p = 0.10), but not osteosarcoma.

Conclusions

In this analysis of a 30-year, US population-based cancer registry (SEER), the authors provide nationally representative prognosis and survival data for patients with malignant primary spinal osseous neoplasms. Overall patient survival has improved for isolated spine tumors with advancements in care over the past 4 decades. These results may be helpful in providing historical controls for understanding the efficacy of new treatment paradigms, patient education, and guiding level of aggressiveness in treatment strategies.