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Roman O. Kowalchuk, Michael R. Waters, K. Martin Richardson, Kelly Spencer, James M. Larner, William H. McAllister, Jason P. Sheehan, and Charles R. Kersh

OBJECTIVE

This study evaluated a large cohort of patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for spinal metastases and investigated predictive factors for local control, local progression-free survival (LPFS), overall survival, and pain response between the different spinal regions.

METHODS

The study was undertaken via retrospective review at a single institution. Patients with a tumor metastatic to the spine were included, while patients with benign tumors or primary spinal cord cancers were excluded. Statistical analysis involved univariate analysis, Cox proportional hazards analysis, the Kaplan-Meier method, and machine learning techniques (decision-tree analysis).

RESULTS

A total of 165 patients with 190 distinct lesions met all inclusion criteria for the study. Lesions were distributed throughout the cervical (19%), thoracic (43%), lumbar (19%), and sacral (18%) spines. The most common treatment regimen was 24 Gy in 3 fractions (44%). Via the Kaplan-Meier method, the 24-month local control was 80%. Sacral spine lesions demonstrated decreased local control (p = 0.01) and LPFS (p < 0.005) compared with those of the thoracolumbar spine. The cervical spine cases had improved local control (p < 0.005) and LPFS (p < 0.005) compared with the sacral spine and trended toward improvement relative to the thoracolumbar spine. The 36-month local control rates for cervical, thoracolumbar, and sacral tumors were 86%, 73%, and 44%, respectively. Comparably, the 36-month LPFS rates for cervical, thoracolumbar, and sacral tumors were 85%, 67%, and 35%, respectively. A planning target volume (PTV) > 50 cm3 was also predictive of local failure (p = 0.04). Fewer cervical spine cases had disease with PTV > 50 cm3 than the thoracolumbar (p = 5.87 × 10−8) and sacral (p = 3.9 × 10−3) cases. Using decision-tree analysis, the highest-fidelity models for predicting pain-free status and local failure demonstrated the first splits as being cervical and sacral location, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

This study presents a novel risk stratification for local failure and LPFS by spinal region. Patients with metastases to the sacral spine may have decreased local control due to increased PTV, especially with a PTV of > 50 cm3. Multidisciplinary care should be emphasized in these patients, and both surgical intervention and radiotherapy should be strongly considered.

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Lennart Riemann, Daphne C. Voormolen, Katrin Rauen, Klaus Zweckberger, Andreas Unterberg, Alexander Younsi, and the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) Investigators and Participants

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of postconcussive symptoms and their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric and adolescent patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who received head CT imaging during initial assessment.

METHODS

Patients aged between 5 and 21 years with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale scores 13–15) and available Rivermead Post Concussion Questionnaire (RPQ) at 6 months of follow-up in the multicenter, prospectively collected CENTER-TBI (Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI) study were included. The prevalence of postconcussive symptoms was assessed, and the occurrence of postconcussive syndrome (PSC) based on the ICD-10 criteria, was analyzed. HRQOL was compared in patients with and without PCS using the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire.

RESULTS

A total of 196 adolescent or pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging were included. High-energy trauma was prevalent in more than half of cases (54%), abnormalities on head CT scans were detected in 41%, and admission to the regular ward or intensive care unit was necessary in 78%. Six months postinjury, 36% of included patients had experienced at least one moderate or severe symptom on the RPQ. PCS was present in 13% of adolescents and children when considering symptoms of at least moderate severity, and those patients had significantly lower QOLIBRI total scores, indicating lower HRQOL, compared with young patients without PCS (57 vs 83 points, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Adolescent and pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging show signs of increased trauma severity. Postconcussive symptoms are present in up to one-third of those patients, and PCS can be diagnosed in 13% 6 months after injury. Moreover, PCS is significantly associated with decreased HRQOL.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010