Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Justin Schwarz x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Justin Schwarz, Joseph A. Carnevale, Jacob L. Goldberg, Alexander D. Ramos, Thomas W. Link, and Jared Knopman

OBJECTIVE

Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a common and challenging pathology to treat due to both the historically high recurrence rate following surgical evacuation and the medical comorbidities inherent in the aging patient population that it primarily affects. Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization has shown promise in the treatment of cSDHs, most convincingly to avoid surgical evacuation in relatively asymptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients requiring surgical evacuation may also benefit from perioperative MMA embolization to prevent cSDH recurrence. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of perioperative MMA embolization for symptomatic cSDH requiring surgical evacuation and to assess if there is a decrease in the cSDH recurrence rate compared to historical recurrence rates following surgical evacuation alone.

METHODS

Symptomatic cSDHs were evacuated using a subdural evacuating port system (SEPS) with 5-mm twist-drill craniostomy in an intensive care unit or by performing a craniotomy in the operating room, using either a small (silver dollar, < 4 cm) or large (≥ 4 cm) craniotomy. MMA embolization was performed perioperatively using angiography, selective catheterization of the MMA, and infusion of polyvinyl particles. Outcomes were assessed clinically and radiographically with interval head CT imaging.

RESULTS

There were 44 symptomatic cSDHs in 41 patients, with 3 patients presenting with bilateral symptomatic cSDH. All cSDHs were evacuated using an SEPS (n = 18), a silver-dollar craniotomy (n = 16), or a large craniotomy (n = 10). Prophylactic MMA embolization was performed successfully in all cSDHs soon after surgical evacuation. There were no deaths and no procedural complications. There was an overall reduction of greater than 50% or resolution of cSDH in 40/44 (90.9%) cases, regardless of the evacuation procedure used. Of the 44 prophylactic cases, there were 2 (4.5%) cases of cSDH recurrence that required repeat surgical evacuation at the 1-year follow-up. These 2 cSDHs were initially evacuated using an SEPS and subsequently required a craniotomy, thereby representing an overall 4.5% recurrence rate of treated cSDH requiring repeat evacuation. Most notably, of the 26 patients who underwent surgical evacuation with a craniotomy followed by MMA embolization, none had cSDH recurrence requiring repeat intervention.

CONCLUSIONS

Perioperative prophylactic MMA embolization in the setting of surgical evacuation, via either craniotomy or SEPS, may help to lower the recurrence rate of cSDH.

Restricted access

Rafael Uribe-Cardenas, Andre E. Boyke, Justin T. Schwarz, Peter F. Morgenstern, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Theodore H. Schwartz, James T. Rutka, James Drake, and Caitlin E. Hoffman

OBJECTIVE

Early surgical intervention for pediatric refractory epilepsy is increasingly advocated as surgery has become safer and data have demonstrated improved outcomes with early seizure control. There is concern that the risks associated with staged invasive electroencephalography (EEG) in very young children outweigh the potential benefits. Here, the authors present a cohort of children with refractory epilepsy who were referred for invasive monitoring, and they evaluate the role and safety of staged invasive EEG in those 3 years old and younger.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of children 3 years and younger with epilepsy, who had been managed surgically at two institutions between 2001 and 2015. A cohort of pediatric patients older than 3 years of age was used for comparison. Demographics, seizure etiology, surgical management, surgical complications, and adverse events were recorded. Statistical analysis was completed using Stata version 13. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare proportions.

RESULTS

Ninety-four patients (45 patients aged ≤ 3 [47.9%]) and 208 procedures were included for analysis. Eighty-six procedures (41.3%) were performed in children younger than 3 years versus 122 in the older cohort (58.7%). Forty-two patients underwent grid placement (14 patients aged ≤ 3 [33.3%]); 3 of them developed complications associated with the implant (3/42 [7.14%]), none of whom were among the younger cohort. Across all procedures, 11 complications occurred in the younger cohort versus 5 in the older patients (11/86 [12.8%] vs 5/122 [4.1%], p = 0.032). Two adverse events occurred in the younger group versus 1 in the older group (2/86 [2.32%] vs 1/122 [0.82%], p = 0.571). Following grid placement, 13/14 younger patients underwent guided resections compared to 20/28 older patients (92.9% vs 71.4%, p = 0.23).

CONCLUSIONS

While overall complication rates were higher in the younger cohort, subdural grid placement was not associated with an increased risk of surgical complications in that population. Invasive electrocorticography informs management in very young children with refractory, localization-related epilepsy and should therefore be used when clinically indicated.