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Justin R. Mascitelli, Sirin Gandhi, Ali Tayebi Meybodi and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Pathology in the region of the basilar quadrifurcation, anterolateral midbrain, medial tentorium, and interpeduncular and ambient cisterns may be accessed anteriorly via an orbitozygomatic (OZ) craniotomy. In Part 1 of this series, the authors explored the anatomy of the oculomotor-tentorial triangle (OTT). In Part 2, the versatility of the OTT as a surgical workspace for treating vascular pathology is demonstrated.

METHODS

Sixty patients with 61 vascular pathologies treated within or via the OTT from 1998 to 2017 by the senior author were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped together based on pathology/surgical procedure and included 1) aneurysms (n = 19); 2) posterior cerebral artery (PCA)/superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypasses (n = 24); 3) brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs; n = 14); and 4) tentorial region dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs; n = 4). The majority of patients were approached via an OZ craniotomy, wide sylvian fissure split, and temporal lobe mobilization to widen the OTT.

RESULTS

Aneurysm locations included the P1-P2 junction (n = 7), P2A segment (n = 9), P2/3 (n = 2), and basilar quadrification (n = 1). Aneurysm treatments included clip reconstruction (n = 12), wrapping (n = 3), proximal occlusion (n = 2), and trapping with (n = 1) or without (n = 1) bypass. Pathologies in the bypass group included vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI; n = 3) and aneurysms of the basilar trunk (n = 13), basilar apex (n = 4), P1 PCA (n = 2), and s1 SCA (n = 2). Bypasses included M2 middle cerebral artery (MCA)–radial artery graft (RAG)–P2 PCA (n = 8), M2 MCA–saphenous vein graft (SVG)–P2 PCA (n = 3), superficial temporal artery (STA)–P2 PCA (n = 5) or STA–s1 SCA (n = 3), s1 SCA–P2 PCA (n = 1), V3 vertebral artery (VA)–RAG–s1 SCA (n = 1), V3 VA–SVG–P2 PCA (n = 1), anterior temporal artery–s1 SCA (n = 1), and external carotid artery (ECA)–SVG–s1 SCA (n = 1). CMs were located in the midbrain (n = 10) or pontomesencephalic junction (n = 4). dAVFs drained into the tentorial, superior petrosal, cavernous, and sphenobasal sinuses. High rates of aneurysm occlusion (79%), bypass patency (100%), complete CM resection (86%), and dAVF obliteration (100%) were obtained. The overall rate of permanent oculomotor nerve palsy was 8.3%. The majority of patients in the aneurysm (94%), CM (93%), and dAVF (100%) groups had stable or improved modified Rankin Scale scores.

CONCLUSIONS

The OTT is an important anatomical triangle and surgical workspace for vascular lesions in and around the crural and ambient cisterns. The OTT can be used to approach a wide variety of vascular pathologies in the region of the basilar quadrifurcation and anterolateral midbrain.

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Branko Skovrlj, Justin R. Mascitelli, Martin B. Camins, Amish H. Doshi and Sheeraz A. Qureshi

A 65-year-old woman underwent an uneventful C3–4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for a large, symptomatic disc herniation. On postoperative Day 1 the patient suffered a sudden, acute respiratory compromise. Emergency fiberoptic intubation revealed significant anterior neck swelling with concern for physical obstruction of the airway. Computed tomography of the neck did not demonstrate an expanding hematoma. The patient was managed with surgical wound exploration and washout. Examination of the anterior neck after incision of the prior surgical site revealed a large volume of Surgifoam under high pressure, which was greater than the amount used during the initial surgery. Thorough washout of the surgical site did not reveal any swelling of the prevertebral soft tissues or hematoma, and the Hemovac drain did not appear to be occluded. The patient was extubated on the 2nd postoperative day and is symptom free 12 months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this report represents the first reported complication of acute respiratory failure from Surgifoam overexpansion after anterior cervical surgery.

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Tyler S. Cole, Sirin Gandhi, Justin R. Mascitelli, Douglas Hardesty, Claudio Cavallo and Michael T. Lawton

Venous interruption through surgical clip ligation is the gold standard treatment for ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistula (e-dAVF). Their malignant natural history is attributable to the higher predilection for retrograde cortical venous drainage. This video illustrates an e-dAVF in a 70-year-old man with progressive tinnitus and headache. Angiogram revealed bilateral e-dAVFs (Borden III–Cognard III) with one fistula draining into cavernous sinus and another to the sagittal sinus. A bifrontal craniotomy was utilized for venous interruption of both e-dAVFs. Postoperative angiography confirmed curative obliteration with no postoperative anosmia. Bilateral e-dAVFs are rare but can be safely treated simultaneously through a single craniotomy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/666edwKHGKc.

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Sirin Gandhi, Tsinsue Chen, Justin R. Mascitelli, Claudio Cavallo, Mohamed A. Labib, Michael J. Lang and Michael T. Lawton

This video illustrates a contralateral supracerebellar transtentorial (cSCTT) approach for resection of a ruptured thalamic cavernous malformation in a 56-year-old woman with progressive right-sided homonymous hemianopsia. The patient was placed in the sitting position, and a torcular craniotomy was performed for the cSCTT approach. The lesion was resected completely. Postoperatively, the patient had intact motor strength and baseline visual field deficits with moderate right-sided paresthesias. The cSCTT approach maximizes the lateral surgical reach without the cortical transgression seen with alternative transcortical routes.1 Contralaterality is a defining feature, with entry of the neurosurgeon’s instruments from the craniotomy edge of the craniotomy, contralateral to the lesion, allowing access to the lateral aspect of the lesion. The sitting position facilitates gravity-assisted cerebellar retraction and enhances the superior reach of this approach (Used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona).

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/lqB9mu_T8NQ.

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Justin R. Mascitelli, Seungwon Yoon, Tyler S. Cole, Helen Kim and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Although numerous arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading scales consider eloquence in risk assessment, none differentiate the types of eloquence. The purpose of this study was to determine if eloquence subtype affects clinical outcome.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of a prospectively collected clinical database of brain AVMs treated with microsurgery in the period from 1997 to 2017. The only inclusion criterion for this study was the presence of eloquence as defined by the Spetzler-Martin grading scale. Eloquence was preoperatively categorized by radiologists. Poor outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 3–6, and worsening clinical status was defined as an increase in the mRS score at follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were performed.

RESULTS

Two hundred forty-one patients (49.4% female; average age 33.9 years) with eloquent brain AVMs were included in this review. Of the AVMs (average size 2.7 cm), 54.4% presented with hemorrhage, 46.2% had deep venous drainage, and 17.0% were diffuse. The most common eloquence type was sensorimotor (46.1%), followed by visual (27.0%) and language (22.0%). Treatments included microsurgery alone (32.8%), microsurgery plus embolization (51.9%), microsurgery plus radiosurgery (7.9%), and all three modalities (7.5%). Motor mapping was used in 9% of sensorimotor AVM cases, and awake speech mapping was used in 13.2% of AVMs with language eloquence. Complications occurred in 24 patients (10%). At the last follow-up (average 24 months), 71.4% of the patients were unchanged or improved and 16.6% had a poor outcome. There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline patient and AVM characteristics among the different subtypes of eloquence. In a multivariate analysis, in comparison to visual eloquence, both sensorimotor (OR 7.4, p = 0.004) and language (OR 6.5, p = 0.015) eloquence were associated with poor outcomes. Additionally, older age (OR 1.31, p = 0.016) and larger AVM size (OR 1.37, p = 0.034) were associated with poor outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Unlike visual eloquence, sensorimotor and language eloquence were associated with worse clinical outcomes after the resection of eloquent AVMs. This nuance in AVM eloquence demands consideration before deciding on microsurgical intervention, especially when numerical grading systems produce a score near the borderline between operative and nonoperative management.

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Ahmed J. Awad, Justin R. Mascitelli, Reham R. Haroun, Reade A. De Leacy, Johanna T. Fifi and J Mocco

Fusiform aneurysms are uncommon compared with their saccular counterparts, yet they remain very challenging to treat and are associated with high rates of rebleeding and morbidity. Lack of a true aneurysm neck renders simple clip reconstruction or coil embolization usually impossible, and more advanced techniques are required, including bypass, stent-assisted coiling, and, more recently, flow diversion. In this article, the authors review posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms, including pathogenesis, natural history, and endovascular treatment, including the role of flow diversion. In addition, the authors propose an algorithm for treatment based on their practice.

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Alexander G. Chartrain, Ahmed J. Awad, Justin R. Mascitelli, Hazem Shoirah, Thomas J. Oxley, Rui Feng, Matthew Gallitto, Reade De Leacy, Johanna T. Fifi and Christopher P. Kellner

Endovascular thrombectomy device improvements in recent years have served a pivotal role in improving the success and safety of the thrombectomy procedure. As the intervention gains widespread use, developers have focused on maximizing the reperfusion rates and reducing procedural complications associated with these devices. This has led to a boom in device development. This review will cover novel and emerging technologies developed for endovascular thrombectomy.

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Benjamin K. Hendricks, James S. Yoon, Kurt Yaeger, Christopher P. Kellner, J Mocco, Reade A. De Leacy, Andrew F. Ducruet, Michael T. Lawton and Justin R. Mascitelli

OBJECTIVE

Wide-necked aneurysms (WNAs) are a variably defined subset of cerebral aneurysms that require more advanced endovascular and microsurgical techniques than those required for narrow-necked aneurysms. The neurosurgical literature includes many definitions of WNAs, and a systematic review has not been performed to identify the most commonly used or optimal definition. The purpose of this systematic review was to highlight the most commonly used definition of WNAs.

METHODS

The authors searched PubMed for the years 1998–2017, using the terms “wide neck aneurysm” and “broad neck aneurysm” to identify relevant articles. All results were screened for having a minimum of 30 patients and for clearly stating a definition of WNA. Reference lists for all articles meeting the inclusion criteria were also screened for eligibility.

RESULTS

The search of the neurosurgical literature identified 809 records, of which 686 were excluded (626 with < 30 patients; 60 for lack of a WNA definition), leaving 123 articles for analysis. Twenty-seven unique definitions were identified and condensed into 14 definitions. The most common definition was neck size ≥ 4 mm or dome-to-neck ratio < 2, which was used in 49 articles (39.8%). The second most commonly used definition was neck size ≥ 4 mm, which was used in 26 articles (21.1%). The rest of the definitions included similar parameters with variable thresholds. There was inconsistent reporting of the precise dome measurements used to determine the dome-to-neck ratio. Digital subtraction angiography was the only imaging modality used to study the aneurysm morphology in 87 of 122 articles (71.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

The literature has great variability regarding the definition of a WNA. The most prevalent definition is a neck diameter of ≥ 4 mm or a dome-to-neck ratio of < 2. Whether this is the most appropriate and clinically useful definition is an area for future study.