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Christopher M. McPherson, Justin Brown, Angela W. Kim and Franco Demonte

✓ Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is an idiopathic histioproliferative disorder usually presenting with massive, painless lymphadenopathy. Extranodal involvement has been reported including at least 50 cases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The treatment of CNS RDD as reported in the literature has primarily involved a surgical technique. The authors report on the case of a 53-year-old man presenting with multiple skull base lesions mimicking meningiomas. The patient suffered visual deterioration and underwent a right orbitopterional craniotomy as well as optic nerve decompression. Histopathological analysis revealed histiocytic cells and emperipolesis consistent with RDD. Following surgery, corticosteroid agents were administered, leading to marked resolution of both the remaining surgically untreated lesions and the balance of the patient's symptoms. This report represents the first case of the resolution of intracranial RDD following corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroid agents should be considered an effective option in the treatment of CNS RDD.

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Justin M. Brown, Manish N. Shah and Susan E. Mackinnon

Peripheral nerve injuries can result in devastating numbness and paralysis. Surgical repair strategies have historically focused on restoring the original anatomy with interposition grafts. Distal nerve transfers are becoming a more common strategy in the repair of nerve deficits as these interventions can restore function in months as opposed to more than a year with nerve grafts. The changes that take place over time in the cell body, distal nerve, and target organ after axotomy can compromise the results of traditional graft placement and may at times be better addressed with the use of distal nerve transfers. A carefully devised nerve transfer offers restoration of function with minimal (if any) detectable deficits at the donor site. A new understanding of cortical plasticity along with patient reeducation allow for good return of strength and function after nerve transfer.

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Mary F. Barbe, Justin M. Brown, Michel A. Pontari, Gregory E. Dean, Alan S. Braverman and Michael R. Ruggieri Sr.

Object

Nerve transfers are an effective means of restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and, recently, even denervated detrusor muscle. The authors performed a cadaveric pilot project to examine the feasibility of restoring control to the urethral and anal sphincters using a femoral motor nerve branch to reinnervate the pudendal nerve through a perineal approach.

Methods

Eleven cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose the pudendal and femoral nerve branches. Pertinent landmarks and distances that could be used to locate these nerves were assessed and measured, as were nerve cross-sectional areas.

Results

A long motor branch of the femoral nerve was followed into the distal vastus medialis muscle for a distance of 17.4 ± 0.8 cm, split off from the main femoral nerve trunk, and transferred medially and superiorly to the pudendal nerve in the Alcock canal, a distance of 13.7 ± 0.71 cm. This was performed via a perineal approach. The cross-sectional area of the pudendal nerve was 5.64 ± 0.49 mm2, and the femoral nerve motor branch at the suggested transection site was 4.40 ± 0.41 mm2.

Conclusions

The use of a femoral nerve motor branch to the vastus medialis muscle for heterotopic nerve transfer to the pudendal nerve is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross-sectional areas.

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Justin M. Brown, Mary F. Barbe, Michael E. Albo, H. Henry Lai and Michael R. Ruggieri Sr.

Object

Nerve transfers are effective for restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and, recently, even to denervated detrusor muscle in a canine model. A pilot project was performed in cadavers to examine the feasibility of transferring somatic nerves to vesical branches of the pelvic nerve as a method for potentially restoring innervation to control the detrusor muscle in humans.

Methods

Eleven cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose intercostal, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves, along with vesical branches of the pelvic nerve. Ease of access and ability to transfer the former 3 nerves to the pelvic vesical nerves were assessed, as were nerve cross-sectional areas.

Results

The pelvic vesical nerves were accessed at the base of the bladder, inferior to the ureter and accompanied by inferior vesical vessels. The T-11 and T-12 intercostal nerves were too short for transfer to the pelvic vesical nerves without grafting. Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves (L-1 origin) were identified retroperitoneally and, with full dissection, were easily transferred to the pelvic vesical nerves intraabdominally. The mean cross-sectional area of the dominant pelvic vesical branch was 2.60 ± 0.169 mm2; ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric branches at the suggested transection site were 2.38 ± 0.32 mm2 (the means are expressed ± SEM).

Conclusions

Use of the ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric nerves for heterotopic transfer to pelvic vesical nerves is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross-sectional areas.

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Justin M. Brown, Mary F. Barbe, Michael E. Albo and Michael R. Ruggieri Sr.

Object

Nerve transfers are an effective means of restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and have recently been shown to be effective in denervated detrusor muscle in a canine model. A cadaveric study was performed to examine the anatomical feasibility of transferring femoral muscular nerve branches to vesical branches of the pelvic nerve as a method of potentially restoring innervation to control the detrusor muscle in humans.

Methods

Twenty cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose pelvic and femoral muscular nerve branches. Ease of access and ability to transfer the nerves were assessed, as were nerve cross-sectional areas.

Results

The pelvic nerve was accessed at the base of the bladder, inferior to the ureter, and accompanied by inferior vesical vessels. Muscular branches of the femoral nerve to the vastus medialis and intermedius muscles (L-3 and L-4 origins) were followed distally for 17.4 ± 0.8 cm. Two muscle branches were split from the femoral nerve trunk, and tunneled inferior to the inguinal ligament. One branch was moved medially toward the base of the bladder and linked to the ipsilateral pelvic nerve. The second branch was tunneled superior to the bladder and linked to the contralateral pelvic nerve. The cross-sectional area of the pelvic nerve vesical branch was 2.60 ± 0.169 mm2 (mean ± SEM), and the femoral nerve branch at the suggested transection site was 4.40 ± 0.41 mm2.

Conclusions

Use of femoral nerve muscular branches from the vastus medialis and intermedius muscles for heterotopic nerve transfer of bilateral pelvic nerves is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross-sectional areas.

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Mark A. Mahan, Jaime Gasco, David B. Mokhtee and Justin M. Brown

OBJECT

Surgical transposition of the ulnar nerve to alleviate entrapment may cause otherwise normal structures to become new sources of nerve compression. Recurrent or persistent neuropathy after anterior transposition is commonly attributable to a new distal compression. The authors sought to clarify the anatomical relationship of the ulnar nerve to the common aponeurosis of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles following anterior transposition of the nerve.

METHODS

The intermuscular septa of the proximal forearm were explored in 26 fresh cadaveric specimens. The fibrous septa and common aponeurotic insertions of the flexor-pronator muscle mass were evaluated in relation to the ulnar nerve, with particular attention to the effect of transposition upon the nerve in this region.

RESULTS

An intermuscular aponeurosis associated with the FCU and FDS muscles was present in all specimens. Transposition consistently resulted in angulation of the nerve during elbow flexion when this fascial septum was not released. The proximal site at which the nerve began to traverse this fascial structure was found to be an average of 3.9 cm (SD 0.7 cm) from the medial epicondyle.

CONCLUSIONS

The common aponeurosis encountered between the FDS and FCU muscles represents a potential site of posttransposition entrapment, which may account for a subset of failed anterior transpositions. Exploration of this region with release of this structure is recommended to provide an unconstrained distal course for a transposed ulnar nerve.