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Alexander G. Chartrain, Ahmed J. Awad, Justin R. Mascitelli, Hazem Shoirah, Thomas J. Oxley, Rui Feng, Matthew Gallitto, Reade De Leacy, Johanna T. Fifi and Christopher P. Kellner

Endovascular thrombectomy device improvements in recent years have served a pivotal role in improving the success and safety of the thrombectomy procedure. As the intervention gains widespread use, developers have focused on maximizing the reperfusion rates and reducing procedural complications associated with these devices. This has led to a boom in device development. This review will cover novel and emerging technologies developed for endovascular thrombectomy.

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James H. Nguyen, Thomas J. Buell, Tony R. Wang, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Marcus D. Mazur, Juanita Garces, Davis G. Taylor, Chun-Po Yen, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Justin S. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Recent literature describing complications associated with spinopelvic fixation with iliac screws in adult patients has been limited but has suggested high complication rates. The authors’ objective was to report their experience with iliac screw fixation in a large series of patients with a 2-year minimum follow-up.

METHODS

Of 327 adult patients undergoing spinopelvic fixation with iliac screws at the authors’ institution between 2010 and 2015, 260 met the study inclusion criteria (age ≥ 18 years, first-time iliac screw placement, and 2-year minimum follow-up). Patients with active spinal infection were excluded. All iliac screws were placed via a posterior midline approach using fluoroscopic guidance. Iliac screw heads were deeply recessed into the posterior superior iliac spine. Clinical and radiographic data were obtained and analyzed.

RESULTS

Twenty patients (7.7%) had iliac screw–related complication, which included fracture (12, 4.6%) and/or screw loosening (9, 3.5%). No patients had iliac screw head prominence that required revision surgery or resulted in pain, wound dehiscence, or poor cosmesis. Eleven patients (4.2%) had rod or connector fracture below S1. Overall, 23 patients (8.8%) had L5–S1 pseudarthrosis. Four patients (1.5%) had fracture of the S1 screw. Seven patients (2.7%) had wound dehiscence (unrelated to the iliac screw head) or infection. The rate of reoperation (excluding proximal junctional kyphosis) was 17.7%. On univariate analysis, an iliac screw–related complication rate was significantly associated with revision fusion (70.0% vs 41.2%, p = 0.013), a greater number of instrumented vertebrae (mean 12.6 vs 10.3, p = 0.014), and greater postoperative pelvic tilt (mean 27.7° vs 23.2°, p = 0.04). Lumbosacral junction–related complications were associated with a greater mean number of instrumented vertebrae (12.6 vs 10.3, p = 0.014). Reoperation was associated with a younger mean age at surgery (61.8 vs 65.8 years, p = 0.014), a greater mean number of instrumented vertebrae (12.2 vs 10.2, p = 0.001), and longer clinical and radiological mean follow-up duration (55.8 vs 44.5 months, p < 0.001; 55.8 vs 44.6 months, p < 0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, reoperation was associated with longer clinical follow-up (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Previous studies on iliac screw fixation have reported very high rates of complications and reoperation (as high as 53.6%). In this large, single-center series of adult patients, iliac screws were an effective method of spinopelvic fixation that had high rates of lumbosacral fusion and far lower complication rates than previously reported. Collectively, these findings argue that iliac screw fixation should remain a favored technique for spinopelvic fixation.

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Thomas J. Buell, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith and Shay Bess

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Thomas J. Buell, James H. Nguyen, Marcus D. Mazur, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Juanita Garces, Davis G. Taylor, Chun-Po Yen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Justin S. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Fixed sagittal spinal malalignment is a common problem in adult spinal deformity (ASD). Various three-column osteotomy techniques, including the extended pedicle subtraction osteotomy (ePSO), may correct global and regional malalignment in this patient population. In contrast to the number of reports on traditional PSO (Schwab grade 3 osteotomy), there is limited literature on the outcomes of ePSO (Schwab grade 4 osteotomy) in ASD surgery. The objective of this retrospective study was to provide focused investigation of radiographic outcomes and complications of single-level lumbar ePSO for ASD patients with fixed sagittal malalignment.

METHODS

Consecutive ASD patients in whom sagittal malalignment had been treated with single-level lumbar ePSO at the authors’ institution between 2010 and 2015 were analyzed, and those with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included in the study. Radiographic analyses included assessments of segmental lordosis through the ePSO site (sagittal Cobb angle measured from the superior endplate of the vertebra above and inferior endplate of the vertebra below the ePSO), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence and LL mismatch, thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) on standing long-cassette radiographs. Complications were analyzed for the entire group.

RESULTS

Among 71 potentially eligible patients, 55 (77%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up and were included in the study. Overall, the average postoperative increases in ePSO segmental lordosis and overall LL were 41° ± 14° (range 7°–69°, p < 0.001) and 38° ± 11° (range 9°–58°, p < 0.001), respectively. The average SVA improvement was 13 ± 7 cm (range of correction: −33.6 to 3.4 cm, p < 0.001). These measurements were maintained when comparing early postoperative to last follow-up values, respectively (mean follow-up 52 months, range 26–97 months): ePSO segmental lordosis, 34° vs 33°, p = 0.270; LL, 47.3° vs 46.7°, p = 0.339; and SVA, 4 vs 5 cm, p = 0.330. Rod fracture (RF) at the ePSO site occurred in 18.2% (10/55) of patients, and pseudarthrosis (PA) at the ePSO site was confirmed by CT imaging or during rod revision surgery in 14.5% (8/55) of patients. Accessory supplemental rods across the ePSO site, a more recently employed technique, significantly reduced the occurrence of RF or PA on univariate (p = 0.004) and multivariable (OR 0.062, 95% CI 0.007–0.553, p = 0.013) analyses; this effect approached statistical significance on Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.053, log-rank test). Interbody cage placement at the ePSO site resulted in greater ePSO segmental lordosis correction (45° vs 35°, p = 0.007) without significant change in RF or PA (p = 0.304). Transient and persistent motor deficits occurred in 14.5% (8/55) and 1.8% (1/55) of patients, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Extended PSO is an effective technique to correct fixed sagittal malalignment for ASD. In comparison to traditional PSO techniques, ePSO may allow greater focal correction with comparable complication rates, especially with interbody cage placement at the ePSO site and the use of accessory supplemental rods.

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Luis C. Ascanio, Raghav Gupta, Nimer Adeeb, Justin M. Moore, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Julie Mayeku, Yaw Tachie-Baffour, Ranjit Thomas, Abdulrahman Y. Alturki, Philip G. R. Schmalz, Christopher S. Ogilvy and Ajith J. Thomas

OBJECTIVE

Currently, there is no established standard regarding the ideal number of external ventricular drain (EVD) clamp trials performed before ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion following nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate this relationship.

METHODS

A retrospective review of all patients presenting with SAH between July 2007 and December 2016 was performed. Patients with SAH who had received an EVD within the first 24 hours of hospital admission and had undergone at least 1 clamp trial prior to EVD removal were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patient demographics, clinical presentations, SAH etiologies and grades, clamp trial data, hospital lengths of stay, and functional outcomes were recorded.

RESULTS

One hundred fourteen patients with nontraumatic SAH complicated by posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus were included in the study. The median patient age was 57 years (range 28–90 years), with a male/female ratio of 1:1.7. A ruptured aneurysm was the underlying etiology of SAH in 79.8% of patients. A majority of patients (69.4%) had a Hunt and Hess grade III–V on admission. The median number of clamp trials performed was 2 (range 1–6). A VP shunt was required in 40.4% of patients. In those who underwent 2 and 3 clamp trials, 60% and 38.9%, respectively, did not require subsequent VP shunt placement.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical placement of a VP shunt is associated with complications. Clamp trials are routinely performed before making the decision to insert a shunt. In the present study, the authors found that a significant percentage of patients passed their second and third clamp trials without requiring subsequent shunt insertion. These data support performing multiple clamp trials prior to shunt placement.

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Bhargav D. Desai, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Bhiken I. Naik, Justin S. Smith and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent with demonstrated efficacy in reducing blood loss when administered systemically. However, in patients with contraindications to systemic or intravenous TXA, topical TXA (tTXA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss, with some studies suggesting equivalence compared to systemic TXA. However, these studies have been conducted in healthy cohorts without contraindications to systemic TXA. In the surgical management of adult spinal deformity (ASD), comorbid disease is commonly encountered and may preclude use of systemic TXA. In this subset of patients with ASD who have contraindications for systemic TXA, use of tTXA has not been reported.

The primary objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the use of tTXA in spine surgery and to present the authors’ initial experience with tTXA as a novel hemostatic technique for 2 patients with medically complex ASD. Both patients had contraindications to systemic TXA use and underwent high-risk, long-segment fusion operations for correction of ASD. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to obtain studies related to spine surgery and tTXA from the National Institutes of Health PubMed (www.pubmed.gov) database. Criteria for final selection included a demonstration of quantitative data regarding operative or postoperative blood loss with the use of tTXA, and selection criteria were met by 6 articles.

Topical TXA may offer a potential therapeutic role in reducing intra- and postoperative blood loss following long-segment spinal fusion surgeries, particularly for medically complex patients with contraindications to systemic TXA. It is reasonable to consider the use of tTXA as a salvage technique in complex high-risk patients with contraindications to systemic TXA, although further research is needed to delineate safety, magnitude of benefit, and optimization of dosing.

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Thomas J. Buell, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Lauren K. Dunn, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Marcus D. Mazur, Chun-Po Yen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith and Bhiken I. Naik

OBJECTIVE

Significant blood loss and coagulopathy are often encountered during adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, and the optimal intraoperative transfusion algorithm is debatable. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), a functional viscoelastometric method for real-time hemostasis testing, may allow early identification of coagulopathy and improve transfusion practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ROTEM-guided blood product management on perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in ASD patients undergoing correction with pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed patients with ASD who underwent single-level lumbar PSO at the University of Virginia Health System. All patients who received ROTEM-guided blood product transfusion between 2015 and 2017 were matched in a 1:1 ratio to a historical cohort treated using conventional laboratory testing (control group). Co-primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) and total blood product transfusion volume. Secondary outcomes were perioperative transfusion requirements and postoperative subfascial drain output.

RESULTS

The matched groups (ROTEM and control) comprised 17 patients each. Comparison of matched group baseline characteristics demonstrated differences in female sex and total intraoperative dose of intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA). Although EBL was comparable between ROTEM versus control (3200.00 ± 2106.24 ml vs 3874.12 ± 2224.22 ml, p = 0.36), there was a small to medium effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.31) on EBL reduction with ROTEM. The ROTEM group had less total blood product transfusion volume (1624.18 ± 1774.79 ml vs 2810.88 ± 1847.46 ml, p = 0.02), and the effect size was medium to large (Cohen’s d = 0.66). This difference was no longer significant after adjusting for TXA (β = −0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1995.78 to 671.64, p = 0.32). More cryoprecipitate and less fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused in the ROTEM group patients (cryoprecipitate units: 1.24 ± 1.20 vs 0.53 ± 1.01, p = 0.03; FFP volume: 119.76 ± 230.82 ml vs 673.06 ± 627.08 ml, p < 0.01), and this remained significant after adjusting for TXA (cryoprecipitate units: β = 0.39, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.73, p = 0.04; FFP volume: β = −0.41, 95% CI −772.55 to −76.30, p = 0.02). Drain output was lower in the ROTEM group and remained significant after adjusting for TXA.

CONCLUSIONS

For ASD patients treated using lumbar PSO, more cryoprecipitate and less FFP were transfused in the ROTEM group compared to the control group. These preliminary findings suggest ROTEM-guided therapy may allow early identification of hypofibrinogenemia, and aggressive management of this may reduce blood loss and total blood product transfusion volume. Additional prospective studies of larger cohorts are warranted to identify the appropriate subset of ASD patients who may benefit from intraoperative ROTEM analysis.

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Thomas J. Buell, Ching-Jen Chen, James H. Nguyen, Peter A. Christiansen, Saikiran G. Murthy, Avery L. Buchholz, Chun-Po Yen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Justin S. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Prior reports have demonstrated the efficacy of surgical correction for adult lumbar scoliosis. Many of these reports focused on mild to moderate scoliosis. The authors’ objective was to report their experience and to assess outcomes and complications after deformity correction for severe adult scoliosis.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed consecutive adult scoliosis patients with major thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves ≥ 75° who underwent deformity correction at their institution. Those eligible with a minimum 2 years of follow-up were included. Demographic, surgical, coronal and sagittal plane radiographic measurements, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores were analyzed.

RESULTS

Among 26 potentially eligible patients, 22 (85%) had a minimum 2 years of follow-up (range 24–89 months) and were included in the study (mean age 57 ± 11 years; 91% women). The cohort comprised 16 (73%), 4 (18%), and 2 (9%) patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis, de novo degenerative scoliosis, and iatrogenic scoliosis, respectively. The surgical approach was posterior-only and multistage anterior-posterior in 18 (82%) and 4 (18%) patients, respectively. Three-column osteotomy was performed in 5 (23%) patients. Transforaminal and anterior lumbar interbody fusion were performed in 14 (64%) and 4 (18%) patients, respectively. All patients had sacropelvic fixation with uppermost instrumented vertebra in the lower thoracic spine (46% [10/22]) versus upper thoracic spine (55% [12/22]). The mean fusion length was 14 ± 3 levels. Preoperative major TL/L and lumbosacral fractional (L4–S1) curves were corrected from 83° ± 8° to 28° ± 13° (p < 0.001) and 34° ± 8° to 13° ± 6° (p < 0.001), respectively. Global coronal and sagittal balance significantly improved from 5 ± 4 cm to 1 ± 1 cm (p = 0.001) and 9 ± 8 cm to 2 ± 3 cm (p < 0.001), respectively. Pelvic tilt significantly improved from 33° ± 9° to 23° ± 10° (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in HRQL measures included the following: Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) pain score (p = 0.009), SRS appearance score (p = 0.004), and SF-12/SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score (p = 0.026). Transient and persistent neurological deficits occurred in 8 (36%) and 2 (9%) patients, respectively. Rod fracture/pseudarthrosis occurred in 6 (27%) patients (supplemental rods were utilized more recently in 23%). Revisions were performed in 7 (32%) patients.

CONCLUSIONS

In this single-center surgical series for severe adult scoliosis (major curves ≥ 75°), a posterior-only or multistage anterior-posterior approach provided major curve correction of 66% and significant improvements in global coronal and sagittal spinopelvic alignment. Significant improvements were also demonstrated in HRQL measures (SRS pain, SRS appearance, and SF-12/SF-36 PCS). Complications and revisions were comparable to those of other reports involving less severe scoliosis. The results of this study warrant future prospective multicenter studies to further delineate outcomes and complication risks for severe adult scoliosis correction.

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Raghav Gupta, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Justin M. Moore, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Madeline Leadon, Nimer Adeeb, Luis Ascanio, Georgios A. Maragkos, Abhi Jain, Philip G. R. Schmalz, Abdulrahman Y. Alturki, Kimberly Kicielinski, Clemens M. Schirmer and Ajith J. Thomas

OBJECTIVE

There is currently no standardized follow-up imaging strategy for intracranial aneurysms treated with the Pipeline embolization device (PED). Here, the authors use follow-up imaging data for aneurysms treated with the PED to propose a standardizable follow-up imaging strategy.

METHODS

A retrospective review of all patients who underwent treatment for ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms with the PED between March 2013 and March 2017 at 2 major academic institutions in the US was performed.

RESULTS

A total of 218 patients underwent treatment for 259 aneurysms with the PED and had undergone at least 1 follow-up imaging session to assess aneurysm occlusion status. There were 235 (90.7%) anterior and 24 posterior (9.3%) circulation aneurysms. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative incidences of aneurysm occlusion at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 38.2%, 77.8%, 84.2%, and 85.1%, respectively. No differences in the cumulative incidence of aneurysm occlusion according to aneurysm location (p = 0.39) or aneurysm size (p = 0.81) were observed. A trend toward a decreased cumulative incidence of aneurysm occlusion in patients 70 years or older was observed (p = 0.088). No instances of aneurysm rupture after PED treatment or aneurysm recurrence after occlusion were noted. Sixteen (6.2%) aneurysms were re-treated with the PED; 11 of these had imaging follow-up data available, demonstrating occlusion in 3 (27.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors propose a follow-up imaging strategy that incorporates 12-month digital subtraction angiography and 24-month MRA for patients younger than 70 years and single-session digital subtraction angiography at 12 months in patients 70 years or older. For recurrent or persistent aneurysms, re-treatment with the PED or use of an alternative treatment modality may be considered.