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Junichiro Satomi, A. Ammar Ghaibeh, Hiroki Moriguchi, and Shinji Nagahiro


The severity of clinical signs and symptoms of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are well correlated with their pattern of venous drainage. Although the presence of cortical venous drainage can be considered a potential predictor of aggressive DAVF behaviors, such as intracranial hemorrhage or progressive neurological deficits due to venous congestion, accurate statistical analyses are currently not available. Using a decision tree data mining method, the authors aimed at clarifying the predictability of the future development of aggressive behaviors of DAVF and at identifying the main causative factors.


Of 266 DAVF patients, 89 were eligible for analysis. Under observational management, 51 patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage/infarction during the follow-up period.


The authors created a decision tree able to assess the risk for the development of aggressive DAVF behavior. Evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation, the decision tree's accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 85.28%, 88.33%, and 80.83%, respectively. The tree shows that the main factor in symptomatic patients was the presence of cortical venous drainage. In its absence, the lesion location determined the risk of a DAVF developing aggressive behavior.


Decision tree analysis accurately predicts the future development of aggressive DAVF behavior.

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Koichi Satoh, Junichiro Satomi, Norio Nakajima, Shunji Matsubara, and Shinji Nagahiro

Object. In this study the authors performed a retrospective analysis of five cases in which the patients (three women and two men) were treated for intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) associated with cerebellar hemorrhage. On the basis of their findings, the authors evaluated the characteristics of this unusual symptom.

Methods. The dural AVFs were located in the right cavernous sinus in one patient, the left transverse—sigmoid sinus in three patients, and the right superior petrosal sinus (SPS) in one patient. All patients presented with severe headache and/or loss of consciousness. Computerized tomography scans revealed a small cerebellar hemorrhage near the fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus in four cases, and a massive hemispheric cerebellar hemorrhage in the remaining case. The four patients with small hemorrhages underwent ventriculostomy and endovascular treatment; all recovered. The patient suffering from a massive hemorrhage because of a dural AVF in the SPS was treated by suboccipital craniectomy, hematoma evacuation, and removal of the vascular anomaly. This patient remains in a persistent vegetative state. In four cases, results of angiography demonstrated retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage through the SPS to the anastomotic lateral mesencephalic vein (ALMV) and/or to the vein of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle (VLR4V). Retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage to the ALMV and/or VLR4V was responsible for cerebellar hemorrhage in these cases.

Conclusions. Thus, it is important to consider dural AVF in cases in which there is even a small hemorrhage near the fourth ventricle accompanied by intraventricular perforation and a decreased level of consciousness.

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Mohammad A. Jamous, Shinji Nagahiro, Keiko T. Kitazato, Koichi Satoh, and Junichiro Satomi

Object. The formation of cerebral aneurysms involves complex processes and little is known about the mechanisms by which they originate, grow, and rupture. The purpose of this study was to identify early ultrastructural morphological changes that lead to the formation of experimental cerebral aneurysms.

Methods. Twenty male Sprague—Dawley rats were subjected to cerebral aneurysm induction (renal hypertension and right common carotid artery ligation); 10 intact rats served as the control group. The animals were killed after 2 months, and a vascular corrosion cast of their cerebral arteries was prepared and screened for aneurysm development by using a scanning electron microscope.

Sequential morphological changes observed at the cerebral artery bifurcation in response to hemodynamic shear stress included endothelial changes, intimal pad elevation, and saccular dilation. Endothelial cell changes were the first observed morphological changes; they were followed by various degrees of artery wall dilation. No aneurysmal changes developed in any of the control rats. Of the 20 surgically treated rats, 11 displayed aneurysmal changes. In five of these animals only changes in the endothelial cell imprints could be identified. In the other six rats morphological changes in endothelial cells were associated with different stages of aneurysmal dilation.

Conclusions. This is the first study to demonstrate in vivo early morphological changes that lead to the formation of cerebral aneurysms. The morphological findings indicate the principal role of endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms and suggest that hemodynamic shear stress and blood flow patterns may precipitate these early changes.

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Mohammad A. Jamous, Shinji Nagahiro, Keiko T. Kitazato, Junichiro Satomi, and Koichi Satoh

Object. Estrogen has been shown to play a central role in vascular biology. Although it may exert beneficial vascular effects, its role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms remains to be determined. To elucidate the role of hormones further, the authors examined the effects of bilateral oophorectomy on the formation and progression of cerebral aneurysms in rats.

Methods. Forty-five female, 7-week-old Sprague—Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. Group I consisted of intact rats (controls). To induce cerebral aneurysms, the animals in Groups II and III were subjected to ligation of the right common carotid and bilateral posterior renal arteries. One month later, the rats in Group II underwent bilateral oophorectomy. Three months after the experiment began all animals were killed and cerebral vascular corrosion casts were prepared and screened for cerebral aneurysms by using a scanning electron microscope. Plasma was used to determine the level of estradiol and the gelatinase activity.

Hypertension developed in all rats except those in the control group. The estradiol level was significantly lower in Group II than in the other groups (p < 0.01). The incidence of cerebral aneurysm formation in Group II (60%) was three times higher than that in Group III (20%), and the mean size of aneurysms in Group II (76 ± 27 µm, mean ± standard deviation) was larger than that in Group III (28 ± 4.6 µm) (p < 0.05). No aneurysm developed in control animals (Group I), and there was no significant difference in plasma gelatinase activity among the three groups.

Conclusions. The cerebral aneurysm model was highly reproducible in rats. Bilateral oophorectomy increased the susceptibility of rats to aneurysm formation, indicating that hormones play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms.

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Roberto C. Heros

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Junichiro Satomi, J. MARC C. van Dijk, Karel G. Terbrugge, Robert A. Willinsky, and M. Christopher Wallace

Object. Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) can be classified into benign or aggressive, based on their patterns of venous drainage. A benign condition requires the absence of cortical venous drainage (CVD). The clinical and angiographic features of a consecutive single-center group of 117 patients harboring benign cranial DAVFs were evaluated over time to validate the behavior and appropriate management of these lesions.

Methods. At the initial assessment four patients were asymptomatic. Two infants presented with congestive heart failure. All other patients presented with other benign symptoms: chronic headache, bruit, or orbital phenomena. Observational management was instituted in 73 patients (62%). Intolerable bruit or ophthalmological sequelae were deemed indications for palliative embolization in 43 patients and surgical treatment in one patient. A median follow-up period of 27.9 months (range 1 month—17.5 years) was available in 112 patients (95.7%), among whom repeated angiography was performed in 50. Overall, observational and palliative management resulted in a benign and tolerable level of disease in 110 (98.2%) of 112 cases. In two cases managed conservatively CVD developed. In both of these cases the conversion from benign to aggressive DAVF was associated with spontaneous progressive thrombosis of venous outlets.

Conclusions. The disease course of a cranial DAVF without CVD is indeed benign, obviating the need for a cure of these lesions. Symptoms are well tolerated with either observation or palliative treatment. After a long-term follow-up review of 68 patients, this conservative management resulted in a benign and tolerable level of disease in 98.5% of cases. It is noteworthy, however, that a benign DAVF carries a 2% risk of developing CVD, mandating close clinical follow-up review in such cases and renewed radiological evaluation in response to any deterioration in the patient's condition.

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Kenji Shimada, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Takeshi Miyamoto, Shu Sogabe, Masaaki Korai, Toshiyuki Okazaki, Yasuhisa Kanematsu, Junichiro Satomi, Shinji Nagahiro, and Yasushi Takagi


Although intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography has been reported to be useful when applied to cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery, the ICG that remains after the procedure makes it difficult to understand the anatomy, to evaluate nidus blood flow changes, and to repeat ICG videoangiography within a short time. Intraarterial ICG videoangiography has emerged as a way to overcome these limitations. The current study presents the results of intraarterial ICG videoangiography undertaken in patients with cerebral AVMs.


Intraarterial ICG videoangiography was performed in 13 patients with cerebral AVMs. Routine intraoperative digital subtraction angiography at the authors’ institution is performed in a hybrid operating room during AVM surgery and includes the added step of injecting ICG to the contrast medium that is administered through a catheter.


Predissection studies were able to visualize the feeder in 12 of 13 cases. The nidus was visualized in 12 of 13 cases, while the drainer was visualized in all cases. After total dissection of the nidus, there was no ICG filling in the drainers found in any of the cases. Washout of the ICG took 4.4 ± 1.3 seconds in the feeders, 9.2 ± 3.5 seconds in the drainers, and 20.9 ± 3.4 seconds in all of the vessels. Nidus flow reduction was confirmed during dissection in 9 of 9 cases. Flow reduction was easy to recognize due to each span being very short. Color-encoded visualization and objective data obtained by Flow 800 analysis reinforced these findings.


The results showed that intraarterial ICG videoangiography was more useful than intravenous ICG videoangiography in cerebral AVM surgery. This was especially effective in the identification of the feeder, nidus, and drainer and in the assessment of the flow dynamics of the nidus. Use of Flow 800 made it simpler and easier to evaluate these findings.

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Mami Hanaoka, Koichi Satoh, Junichiro Satomi, Shunji Matsubara, Shinji Nagahiro, Osamu Takimoto, and Masaaki Ohbayashi

✓ The authors describe a novel technique involving the use of a gooseneck snare for microcatheterization of isolated sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). In some patients the inferior petrosal and transverse–sigmoid sinuses, the route of transvenous embolization (TVE) for DAVF, are separated by several channels. Even if a guidewire can be passed over the occluded portion and the affected sinus can be accessed, one may not necessarily be able to insert a microcatheter. The authors report on three patients who underwent successful microcatheterization via a novel pull-up technique, which makes use of a gooseneck snare to perform TVE even in very difficult circumstances.