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Jung-Hee Lee, Wook-Jae Song, and Kyung-Chung Kang

Epidural venous engorgement can result from various lesions, such as arteriovenous malformation, thrombosis or occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC), or an abdominal masslike lesion. Most patients with these problems complain of low-back pain, radicular pain, or neurogenic claudication, which are symptoms suggestive of disc herniation or spinal stenosis. However, these patients rarely exhibit neurological deficits or cauda equina syndrome. The authors encountered a case of a 60-year-old man presenting with lower-extremity weakness and voiding difficulty for a period of 1 year. To investigate the patient’s myelopathy-mimicking symptoms, a lumbar spine MRI scan was performed. The MR images exhibited tortuous and dilated spinal vessels compressing the spinal cord and thecal sac at the T11-L3 level, which were concurrent with syringomyelia evidenced by a 22 × 2.5-mm cyst at the T11–12 level. 3D CT scanning of the whole aorta revealed total occlusion and regression of the IVC in the intrahepatic region 3 cm inferior to the right atrium and dilation of multiple collateral veins. The patient was diagnosed with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome Type I. The authors performed venography, followed by intrahepatic IVC recanalization via stent placement under fluoroscopic and ultra sonographic guidance and without surgical exploration. After this treatment, there was a marked decrease in epidural venous engorgement and the patient’s symptoms resolved almost completely. This case indicates that epidural venous engorgement at thoracolumbar levels may cause symptoms suggestive of myelopathy and can be successfully treated by minimally invasive procedures to eliminate the underlying causes.

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June Ho Lee, Chae-Yong Kim, Dong Gyu Kim, and Hee-Won Jung

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Jung Yong Ahn, Young Sun Chung, and Byung-Hee Lee

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Jung-Hee Lee, Ki-Tack Kim, Kyung-Soo Suk, Sang-Hun Lee, Bi-O Jeong, Hyun-Seok Oh, Chul-Hee Lee, and Myung-Seo Kim

Intraspinal cystic lesions with different pathogeneses have been reported to cause neurological deficits; however, no one has focused on the intraspinal extradural cysts that develop after osteoporotic compression fracture. The reported case features a 66-year-old woman presenting with progressive neurological deficit, back pain, and no history of additional trauma after undergoing conservative treatment for an osteoporotic fracture of L-1. The authors present serial radiographs and MR images demonstrating an epidural cyst successfully treated via a single posterior approach. This appears to be the first such case reported in the literature.

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Ki Young Lee, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Sung Joon Shin, Won Ju Shin, Sang-Kyu Im, and Joon Hong Park

OBJECTIVE

Maintaining lumbosacral (LS) arthrodesis and global sagittal balance after long fusion to the sacrum remains an important issue in the surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD). The importance and usefulness of LS fixation have been documented, but the optimal surgical long fusion to the sacrum remains a matter for debate. Therefore, the authors performed a retrospective study to evaluate fusion on CT scans and the risk factors for LS pseudarthrosis (nonunion) after long fusion to the sacrum in ASD.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study of 59 patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (mean age 69.6 years) who underwent surgical correction, including an interbody fusion of the L5–S1, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Achievement of LS fusion was evaluated by analyzing 3D-CT scans at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Patients were classified into a union group (n = 36) and nonunion group (n = 23). Risk factors for nonunion were analyzed, including patient and surgical factors.

RESULTS

The overall fusion rate was 61% (36/59). Regarding radiological factors, optimal sagittal balance at the final follow-up significantly differed between two groups. There were no significant differences in terms of patient factors, and no significant differences with respect to the use of pedicle subtraction osteotomy, the number of fused segments, the proportion of anterior versus posterior interbody fusion, S2 alar iliac fixation versus conventional iliac fixation, or loosening of sacral or iliac screws. However, the proportion of metal cages to polyetheretherketone cages and the proportion of sacropelvic fixation were significantly higher in the union group (p = 0.022 and p < 0.05, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

LS junction fusion is crucial for global sagittal balance, and the use of iliac screws in addition to LS interbody fusion using a metal cage improves the outcomes of long fusion surgery for ASD patients.

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Ki Young Lee, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Won-Ju Shin, Sang Kyu Im, and Seong Jin Cho

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after long-segment fixation in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been reported to range from 17% to 61.7%. Recent studies have reported using “hybrid” techniques in which semirigid fixation is introduced between the fused and flexible segments at the proximal level to allow a more gradual transition. The authors used these hybrid techniques in a clinical setting and analyzed PJK to evaluate the usefulness of the flexible rod (FR) technique.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively selected 77 patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) who underwent sagittal correction and long-segment fixation and had follow-up for > 1 year. An FR was used in 30 of the 77 patients. PJK development and spinal sagittal changes were analyzed in the FR and non-FR groups, and the predictive factors of PJK between a PJK group and a non-PJK group were compared.

RESULTS

The patient population comprised 77 patients (75 females and 2 males) with a mean (± SD) follow-up of 32.0 ± 12.7 months (36.7 ± 9.8 months in the non-FR group and 16.8 ± 4.7 months in the FR group) and mean (± SD) age of 71.7 ± 5.1 years. Sagittal balance was well maintained at final follow-up (10.5 and 1.5 mm) in the non-FR and FR groups, respectively. Thoracic kyphosis (TK) and lumbar lordosis (LL) were improved in both groups, without significant differences between the two (p > 0.05). PJK occurred in 28 cases (36.4%) in total, 3 (10%) in the FR and 25 (53.2%) in the non-FR group (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, PJK was observed at an average of 8.9 months in the non-FR group and 1 month in the FR group. No significant differences in the incidence of PJK regarding patient factors or radiological parameters were found between the PJK group and non-PJK group (p > 0.05). However, FR (vs non-FR) and interbody fusion except L5–S1 using oblique lumbar interbody fusion (vs non–oblique lumbar interbody fusion), demonstrated a significantly lower PJK prevalence (p < 0.001 and p = 0.044) among the surgical factors.

CONCLUSIONS

PJK was reduced after surgical treatment with the FR in the patients with LDK. Solid long-segment fixation and the use of the FR may become another surgical option for spine surgeons who plan and make decisions regarding spine reconstruction surgery for patients with ASD.

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Yang Kwon, Jae Sung Ahn, Sang Ryong Jeon, Jeong Hoon Kim, Chang Jin Kim, Jung Kyo Lee, Byung Duk Kwun, Do Hee Lee, and Sun Young Kim

Object. The authors evaluated whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) could be a causative factor in intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas.

Methods. Gamma knife radiosurgery was used in the treatment of 173 meningiomas during a 10-year period. Four patients suffered post-GKS intratumoral hemorrhage. The course in these patients was reviewed.

Four of 173 patients suffered an intratumoral hemorrhage during a follow-up period of 1 to 8 years. The risk of intratumoral bleeding after GKS for meningioma was 2.3%. Intracystic hemorrhage occurred in two patients 1 and 5 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. In the other two cases intratumoral bleeding occurred 2 and 8 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. Histological examination in three cases found no specific findings related to the postradiosurgical changes.

Conclusions. Because the reported risk of spontaneous intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas is 1.3 to 2.7%, the incidence in this series was not unduly high. Radiosurgery itself could not be shown to be a significant factor in the development of the intratumoral bleeding.

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Ki Young Lee, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Sang-Kyu Im, Hae Seong Lim, and Sun Whan Choi

OBJECTIVE

Restoring the proper sagittal alignment in adult spinal deformity (ASD) can improve radiological and clinical outcomes, but pseudarthrosis including rod fracture (RF) is a common problematic complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze the methods for reducing the incidence of RF in deformity correction of ASD.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively selected 178 consecutive patients (mean age 70.8 years) with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) who underwent deformity correction with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were classified into the non-RF group (n = 131) and the RF group (n = 47). For predicting the crucial factors of RF, patient factors, radiographic parameters, and surgical factors were analyzed.

RESULTS

The overall incidence of RF was 26% (47/178 cases), occurring in 42% (42/100 cases) of pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO), 7% (5/67 cases) of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) with posterior column osteotomy, 18% (23/129 cases) of cobalt chrome rods, 49% (24/49 cases) of titanium alloy rods, 6% (2/36 cases) placed with the accessory rod technique, and 32% (45/142 cases) placed with the 2-rod technique. There were no significant differences in the incidence of RF regarding patient factors between two groups. While both groups showed severe sagittal imbalance before operation, lumbar lordosis (LL) was more kyphotic and pelvic incidence (PI) minus LL (PI-LL) mismatch was greater in the RF group (p < 0.05). Postoperatively, while LL and PI-LL did not show significant differences between the two groups, LL and sagittal vertical axis correction were greater in the RF group (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, at the last follow-up, the two groups did not show significant differences in radiographic parameters except thoracolumbar junctional angles. As for surgical factors, use of the cobalt chrome rod and the accessory rod technique was significantly greater in the non-RF group (p < 0.05). As for the correction method, PSO was associated with more RFs than the other correction methods, including LLIF (p < 0.05). By logistic regression analysis, PSO, preoperative PI-LL mismatch, and the accessory rod technique were crucial factors for RF.

CONCLUSIONS

Greater preoperative sagittal spinopelvic malalignment including preoperative PI-LL mismatch was the crucial risk factor for RF in LDK patients 65 years or older. For restoring and maintaining sagittal alignment, use of the cobalt chrome rod, accessory rod technique, or LLIF was shown to be effective for reducing RF in ASD surgery.

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Dae Kyu Lee, Dong Gyu Kim, Gheeyoung Choe, Je G. Chi, and Hee-Won Jung

✓ The authors present a case of chordoid meningioma in a 55-year-old woman who manifested headache and personality change. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cerebral angiography demonstrated a mass in the right frontal lobe that resembled a typical convexity meningioma. However, the pathological diagnosis was chordoid meningioma, a rare subtype of this tumor that usually occurs in adolescence and is known to be associated with Castleman syndrome. A meningothelial meningiomatous pattern suggestive of a meningothelial origin was focally present, and cytokeratin-positive squamoid cells were noted in the tumor. The lesion lacked dense infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Polyclonal gammopathy was the only sign of Castleman syndrome and hypochromic microcytic anemia was absent in this case. Polyclonal gammopathy resolved completely 6 months after total removal of the mass.

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Hyung-Chul Lee, Hyun-Kyu Yoon, Jung Hee Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, and Hee-Pyoung Park

OBJECTIVE

In this double-blind randomized trial, the necessity of preoperative steroid administration in patients without adrenal insufficiency (AI) undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for pituitary adenoma was evaluated.

METHODS

Forty patients with and without AI, defined as a peak cortisol level > 18 µg/dl on the insulin tolerance test or rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test, undergoing ETSS for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were randomly allocated to treatment with either 100 mg of preoperative hydrocortisone (group HC, n = 20) or normal saline (group C, n = 20). The patients with pituitary apoplexy, the use of a drug within the last 3 months that could affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, or a previous history of brain or adrenal surgery were excluded. Intraoperative cortisol and ACTH levels were measured after anesthesia induction, dura incision, and tumor removal, and at the end of surgery. Intraoperative hypotension, early postoperative AI, and postoperative 3-month pituitary function were investigated.

RESULTS

Intraoperative serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in the HC group than in the C group after anesthesia induction (median 69.0 µg/dl [IQR 62.2–89.6 µg/dl] vs 12.7 µg/dl [IQR 8.4–18.2 µg/dl], median difference 57.5 µg/dl [95% CI 33.0–172.9 µg/dl]), after dura incision (median 53.2 µg/dl [IQR 44.9–63.8 µg/dl] vs 6.4 [IQR 4.8–9.2 µg/dl], median difference 46.6 µg/dl [95% CI 13.3–89.2 µg/dl]), after tumor removal (median 49.5 µg/dl [IQR 43.6–62.4 µg/dl] vs 9.2 µg/dl [IQR 5.75–16.7 µg/dl], median difference 39.4 µg/dl [95% CI 0.3–78.1 µg/dl]), and at the end of surgery (median 46.9 µg/dl [IQR 40.1–63.4 µg/dl] vs 16.9 µg/dl [IQR 12.1–23.2 µg/dl], median difference 32.2 µg/dl [95% CI −42.0 to 228.1 µg/dl]). Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in group HC than in group C after anesthesia induction (median 3.9 pmol/L [IQR 1.7–5.2 pmol/L] vs 6.9 pmol/L [IQR 3.9–11.9 pmol/L], p = 0.007). No patient showed intraoperative hypotension due to AI. Early postoperative AI was observed in 3 and 5 patients in groups HC and C, respectively. The postoperative 3-month pituitary hormone outcomes including ACTH deficiency were not different between groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative steroid administration may be unnecessary in patients without AI undergoing ETSS for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. However, a further large-scale study is needed to determine whether preoperative steroid administration has a significant impact on clinically meaningful events such as perioperative AI and postoperative 3-month ACTH deficiency in these patients.

Korean Clinical Trial Registry no.: KCT0002426 (https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/).