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Jung-Hee Lee, Wook-Jae Song and Kyung-Chung Kang

Epidural venous engorgement can result from various lesions, such as arteriovenous malformation, thrombosis or occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC), or an abdominal masslike lesion. Most patients with these problems complain of low-back pain, radicular pain, or neurogenic claudication, which are symptoms suggestive of disc herniation or spinal stenosis. However, these patients rarely exhibit neurological deficits or cauda equina syndrome. The authors encountered a case of a 60-year-old man presenting with lower-extremity weakness and voiding difficulty for a period of 1 year. To investigate the patient’s myelopathy-mimicking symptoms, a lumbar spine MRI scan was performed. The MR images exhibited tortuous and dilated spinal vessels compressing the spinal cord and thecal sac at the T11-L3 level, which were concurrent with syringomyelia evidenced by a 22 × 2.5-mm cyst at the T11–12 level. 3D CT scanning of the whole aorta revealed total occlusion and regression of the IVC in the intrahepatic region 3 cm inferior to the right atrium and dilation of multiple collateral veins. The patient was diagnosed with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome Type I. The authors performed venography, followed by intrahepatic IVC recanalization via stent placement under fluoroscopic and ultra sonographic guidance and without surgical exploration. After this treatment, there was a marked decrease in epidural venous engorgement and the patient’s symptoms resolved almost completely. This case indicates that epidural venous engorgement at thoracolumbar levels may cause symptoms suggestive of myelopathy and can be successfully treated by minimally invasive procedures to eliminate the underlying causes.

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June Ho Lee, Chae-Yong Kim, Dong Gyu Kim and Hee-Won Jung

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Jung Yong Ahn, Young Sun Chung and Byung-Hee Lee

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Jung-Hee Lee, Ki-Tack Kim, Kyung-Soo Suk, Sang-Hun Lee, Bi-O Jeong, Hyun-Seok Oh, Chul-Hee Lee and Myung-Seo Kim

Intraspinal cystic lesions with different pathogeneses have been reported to cause neurological deficits; however, no one has focused on the intraspinal extradural cysts that develop after osteoporotic compression fracture. The reported case features a 66-year-old woman presenting with progressive neurological deficit, back pain, and no history of additional trauma after undergoing conservative treatment for an osteoporotic fracture of L-1. The authors present serial radiographs and MR images demonstrating an epidural cyst successfully treated via a single posterior approach. This appears to be the first such case reported in the literature.

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Yang Kwon, Jae Sung Ahn, Sang Ryong Jeon, Jeong Hoon Kim, Chang Jin Kim, Jung Kyo Lee, Byung Duk Kwun, Do Hee Lee and Sun Young Kim

Object. The authors evaluated whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) could be a causative factor in intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas.

Methods. Gamma knife radiosurgery was used in the treatment of 173 meningiomas during a 10-year period. Four patients suffered post-GKS intratumoral hemorrhage. The course in these patients was reviewed.

Four of 173 patients suffered an intratumoral hemorrhage during a follow-up period of 1 to 8 years. The risk of intratumoral bleeding after GKS for meningioma was 2.3%. Intracystic hemorrhage occurred in two patients 1 and 5 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. In the other two cases intratumoral bleeding occurred 2 and 8 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. Histological examination in three cases found no specific findings related to the postradiosurgical changes.

Conclusions. Because the reported risk of spontaneous intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas is 1.3 to 2.7%, the incidence in this series was not unduly high. Radiosurgery itself could not be shown to be a significant factor in the development of the intratumoral bleeding.

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Ki Young Lee, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Won-Ju Shin, Sang Kyu Im and Seong Jin Cho


The incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after long-segment fixation in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been reported to range from 17% to 61.7%. Recent studies have reported using “hybrid” techniques in which semirigid fixation is introduced between the fused and flexible segments at the proximal level to allow a more gradual transition. The authors used these hybrid techniques in a clinical setting and analyzed PJK to evaluate the usefulness of the flexible rod (FR) technique.


The authors retrospectively selected 77 patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) who underwent sagittal correction and long-segment fixation and had follow-up for > 1 year. An FR was used in 30 of the 77 patients. PJK development and spinal sagittal changes were analyzed in the FR and non-FR groups, and the predictive factors of PJK between a PJK group and a non-PJK group were compared.


The patient population comprised 77 patients (75 females and 2 males) with a mean (± SD) follow-up of 32.0 ± 12.7 months (36.7 ± 9.8 months in the non-FR group and 16.8 ± 4.7 months in the FR group) and mean (± SD) age of 71.7 ± 5.1 years. Sagittal balance was well maintained at final follow-up (10.5 and 1.5 mm) in the non-FR and FR groups, respectively. Thoracic kyphosis (TK) and lumbar lordosis (LL) were improved in both groups, without significant differences between the two (p > 0.05). PJK occurred in 28 cases (36.4%) in total, 3 (10%) in the FR and 25 (53.2%) in the non-FR group (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, PJK was observed at an average of 8.9 months in the non-FR group and 1 month in the FR group. No significant differences in the incidence of PJK regarding patient factors or radiological parameters were found between the PJK group and non-PJK group (p > 0.05). However, FR (vs non-FR) and interbody fusion except L5–S1 using oblique lumbar interbody fusion (vs non–oblique lumbar interbody fusion), demonstrated a significantly lower PJK prevalence (p < 0.001 and p = 0.044) among the surgical factors.


PJK was reduced after surgical treatment with the FR in the patients with LDK. Solid long-segment fixation and the use of the FR may become another surgical option for spine surgeons who plan and make decisions regarding spine reconstruction surgery for patients with ASD.

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Dae Kyu Lee, Dong Gyu Kim, Gheeyoung Choe, Je G. Chi and Hee-Won Jung

✓ The authors present a case of chordoid meningioma in a 55-year-old woman who manifested headache and personality change. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cerebral angiography demonstrated a mass in the right frontal lobe that resembled a typical convexity meningioma. However, the pathological diagnosis was chordoid meningioma, a rare subtype of this tumor that usually occurs in adolescence and is known to be associated with Castleman syndrome. A meningothelial meningiomatous pattern suggestive of a meningothelial origin was focally present, and cytokeratin-positive squamoid cells were noted in the tumor. The lesion lacked dense infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Polyclonal gammopathy was the only sign of Castleman syndrome and hypochromic microcytic anemia was absent in this case. Polyclonal gammopathy resolved completely 6 months after total removal of the mass.

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Taek-Kyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Young-Jo Jung, Yong-Seok Im, Hee-Ye An, Do-Hyun Nam, Kwan Park and Jong-Hyun Kim

Object. This study was performed to evaluate the role of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with a large number (four or more) of metastatic brain lesions.

Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed the outcome in 130 patients who underwent GKS for metastatic lesions. Eighty-four patients presented with one to three lesions (Group A) and 46 presented with four or more lesions (Group B). The overall median survival time after GKS was 35 weeks. The median survival time in Group A (48 weeks) was significantly longer (p = 0.005) than the survival time in Group B (26 weeks). The recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class was the only significant prognostic factor identified in multivariate analysis. The median survival for patients in RPA Classes I, II, and III was 72, 48, and 19 weeks, respectively, in Group A and 36 and 13 weeks for Classes II and III in Group B. The number of lesions, tumor volume, whole brain radiotherapy, primary tumor site, age, and sex did not affect survival significantly.

Conclusions. It is suggested that GKS provides an increase in survival time even in patients with a large number (four or more) of metastatic lesions. Concerning the selection of patients for GKS, RPA class should be considered as the most important factor and multiplicity of the lesions alone should not be a reason for withholding GKS.

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Hae-Won Koo, Wonhyoung Park, Kuhyun Yang, Jung Cheol Park, Jae Sung Ahn, Sun Uck Kwon, Changmo Hwang and Deok Hee Lee

Although extremely rare, retention of foreign bodies such as microcatheters or micro guidewires can occur during various neurovascular procedures due to gluing of the microcatheter tip or entanglement of the micro guidewire tip with intravascular devices. The authors have experienced 2 cases of irresolvable wire retention, one after flow diverter placement for a left cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm and the other after intracranial stenting for acute basilar artery occlusion. The first patient presented 6 weeks after her procedure with right lung parenchymal hemorrhage due to direct piercing of the lung parenchyma after the retained wire fractured and migrated out of the aortic arch. The second patient presented 4 years after his procedure with pneumothorax due to migration of the fractured guidewire segment into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, the authors discuss the possible mechanisms of these unusual complications and how to prevent delayed consequences from a retained intravascular metallic wire.

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Dae Kyu Lee, Hee-Won Jung, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Ho-Shin Gwak and Gheeyoung Choe

✓ The authors present a case of postoperative spinal seeding of papillary craniopharyngioma. This 27-year-old man who had previously undergone subtotal removal of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma was admitted because of low-back and right leg pain. Results of neurological examination showed a limitation in straight-leg raising in the right side with no sensorimotor changes. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated multiple enhanced intradural extramedullary masses causing spinal cord compression. Pathological examination of the tumor tissue obtained via laminectomy revealed papillary craniopharyngioma, which had the same histological features as those of the previous suprasellar tumor. Several ectopic recurrences of craniopharyngioma have been reported; however, the authors believe that this is the first published report of the spinal seeding of craniopharyngioma.