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Jaechan Park, Jung Hyun Hwang and In Suk Hamm

✓ The authors report the first known case in which an anomalous collateral artery was found to connect the proximal A2 segment with the middle of the M1 segment. This rarity was associated with atresia of the T-shaped internal carotid artery bifurcation. Two aneurysms had developed on a tortuous and tangled portion of the anomalous artery; one of them had ruptured, producing a subarachnoid hemorrhage and an intracerebral hematoma in the area of the putamen. The aneurysms were clipped and the intracerebral hematoma was removed via an emergency craniotomy.

Possible causes of the anomaly and the differences between it and accessory and duplicated middle cerebral arteries are reviewed.

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Na Young Jung, Chang Kyu Park, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung and Jin Woo Chang

OBJECTIVE

Although neurosurgical procedures are effective treatments for controlling involuntary tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET), they can cause cognitive decline, which can affect quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study is to assess the changes in the neuropsychological profile and QOL of patients following MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy for ET.

METHODS

The authors prospectively analyzed 20 patients with ET who underwent unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy at their institute in the period from March 2012 to September 2014. Patients were regularly evaluated with the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), neuroimaging, and cognition and QOL measures. The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was used to assess cognitive function, and the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) was used to evaluate the postoperative change in QOL.

RESULTS

The total CRST score improved by 67.3% (from 44.75 ± 9.57 to 14.65 ± 9.19, p < 0.001) at 1 year following MRgFUS thalamotomy. Mean tremor scores improved by 68% in the hand contralateral to the thalamotomy, but there was no significant improvement in the ipsilateral hand. Although minimal cognitive decline was observed without statistical significance, memory function was much improved (p = 0.031). The total QUEST score also showed the same trend of improving (64.16 ± 17.75 vs 27.38 ± 13.96, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors report that MRgFUS thalamotomy had beneficial effects in terms of not only tremor control but also safety for cognitive function and QOL. Acceptable postoperative changes in cognition and much-improved QOL positively support the clinical significance of MRgFUS thalamotomy as a new, favorable surgical treatment in patients with ET.

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Jung Jae Park, Hong Joo Moon, Jin Hyun Park, Taek Hyun Kwon, Youn-Kwan Park and Joo Han Kim

OBJECT

To determine the role played by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the interactions between macrophages and intervertebral disc (IVD) cells, it was hypothesized that MAPK inhibition would modulate the production of the proinflammatory cytokines associated with inflammatory reaction in IVD cells.

METHODS

Human annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cocultured with phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated macrophage-like THP-1 cells, with and without SB202190 (a p38-α and -β inhibitor), SP600125 (a c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor), and PD98059 (an extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] 1/2 inhibitor). The cytokines in conditioned media from cocultured and macrophage-exposed (nemotic) cells were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

RESULTS

Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were secreted in greater quantities by the cocultured cells compared with naive IVD cells and macrophages (MΦ) cultured alone. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and IL-6 levels produced by the NP cells cocultured with MΦs (NP-MΦ) were significantly lower than those produced by AF cells cocultured with MΦs (AF-MΦ). SB202190 dose-dependently suppressed IL-6 secretion by AF-MΦ and NP-MΦ cocultures, and 10 μM SB202190 significantly decreased IL-6 and IL-8 production in nemotic AF and NP pellets. SP600125 at 10 μM significantly suppressed the production of TNF α IL-6. and IL-8 in AF-MΦ and NP-MΦ cocultures and significantly suppressed IL-1β production in the NP-MΦ coculture. Administration of 10 μM PD98059 significantly decreased IL-6 levels in the AF-MΦ coculture, and decreased the levels of TNF α and IL-8 in both the AF-MΦ and NP-MΦ cocultures.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study shows that inhibitors of p38 MAPK effectively controlled IL-6 production during inflammatory reactions and that JNK and ERK1/2 inhibitors successfully suppressed the production of major proinflammatory cytokines during interactions between macrophages and IVD cells. Therefore, selective blockade of these signals may serve as a therapeutic approach to symptomatic IVD degeneration.

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Hyungseok Seo, Eugene Kim, Haesun Jung, Young-Jin Lim, Jin Wook Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Bem Se, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang and Hee-Pyoung Park

OBJECTIVE

Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects.

METHODS

A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation. The osmolality gap (OG) and serum electrolytes were measured before and after mannitol administration.

RESULTS

The brain relaxation score showed an increasing trend in patients receiving higher doses of mannitol (p = 0.005). The incidence of satisfactory brain relaxation was higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (67.7% and 64.5% vs 32.2%, p = 0.011 and 0.022, respectively). The incidence of OG greater than 10 mOsm/kg was also higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (100.0% in both groups vs 77.4%, p = 0.011 for both). The incidence of moderate hyponatremia (125 mmol/L ≤ Na+ < 130 mmol/L) was significantly higher in Group D than in other groups (38.7% vs 0.0%, 9.7%, and 12.9% in Groups A, B, and C; p < 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.020, respectively). Hyperkalemia (K+ > 5.0 mmol/L) was observed in 12.9% of patients in Group D only.

CONCLUSIONS

The higher doses of mannitol provided better brain relaxation but were associated with more adverse effects. Considering the balance between the benefits and risks of mannitol, the authors suggest the use of 1.0 g/kg of intraoperative mannitol for satisfactory brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02168075 (clinicaltrials.gov)

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Sang-Dae Kim, Je-On Park, Se-Hoon Kim, Young-Hen Lee, Dong-Jun Lim and Jung-Yul Park

✓Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) is an uncommon cause of acute spinal cord compression. When it does occur, however, it may have disastrous results and a poor prognosis. The nontraumatic acute spinal SDH usually results from a defect in a hemostatic mechanism (such as coagulopathy or the use of anticoagulant therapy) or from iatrogenic causes (such as spinal puncture). Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic systemic arteriopathy of unknown cause that typically affects the small and medium arteries in young to middle-aged women. The authors report on their experience with a patient with an acute spontaneous spinal SDH that occurred in conjunction with FMD.

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Chul-Jin Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Jin-Woo Park, Jung-Chung Lee and John H. Zhang

Object. This study was undertaken to explore whether erythrocyte lysate, a proposed cause of vasospasm, produces vasoconstriction by activation of tyrosine kinase in rabbit cerebral arteries.

Methods. Isometric tension was used to monitor contractions in rabbit basilar arteries induced by erythrocyte lysate, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), or KCl in the absence or presence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Erythrocyte lysate, 5-HT, or KCl produced concentration-dependent contractions in rabbit basilar arteries. Preincubation with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors tyrphostin A23 and genistein (30 and 100 µM), but not diadzein, an inactive analog of genistein, attenuated significantly the contraction induced by erythrocyte lysate (p < 0.05). Tyrphostin A23, genistein, and diadzein (30 µM) failed to reduce the contraction caused by 5-HT. Genistein, but not tyrphostin A23 or diadzein (30 µM), attenuated significantly the contraction induced by KCl (p < 0.05). In another series, arterial rings were initially contracted with erythrocyte lysate, 5-HT, or KCl and the relaxant effect of genistein was then tested. Genistein relaxed rabbit basilar arteries that had been contracted by exposure to erythrocyte lysate, 5-HT, or KCl (30–100 µM; p < 0.05).

Conclusions. These data indicate that tyrosine kinase may play a role in the regulation of cerebral arterial contraction and tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful in the management of cerebral vasospasm.

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Doo-Sik Kong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Kwan Park and Jong Hyun Kim

Object

The authors conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) followed by radiotherapy for the treatment of unresectable glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs) on patient survival and quality of life.

Methods

A total of 19 patients with unresectable GBMs located in eloquent areas of the brain were eligible for this study. Beginning in January 2002, 10 patients underwent GKS followed by fractionated radiotherapy. Nine patients who had undergone radiotherapy alone after biopsy-proven diagnosis served as the control group. The mean patient ages were 53 years and 56 years, respectively. Preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores were 80 (range 60–100) and 90 (range 50–100), respectively. The median margin dose for GKS was 12 Gy (9–16 Gy), and the total dose for radiotherapy was 60 Gy in 30 fractions. The mean follow-up duration was 7.2 months, the median patient survival time was 52 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 22–110.6 weeks) in the GKS group, and the median overall survival time was 28 weeks (95% CI 22.5–33.5 weeks) in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.0758). The estimated progression-free survival rate at 3 months was 75% in the GKS group and 45% in the control group (p = 0.082). The posttreatment KPS scores were either unchanged or improved in the GKS group, whereas it deteriorated by 20 or more points in six of nine patients of the control group (p = 0.004).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery prior to radiotherapy may be helpful in preserving patients' daily activities in the adjuvant management of unresectable GBM.

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Takehiro Nakamura, Ya Hua, Richard F. Keep, Jung-Weon Park, Guohua Xi and Julian T. Hoff

Object

The aims of this study were to determine the following: whether there are sex differences in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced brain injury in rats, whether delayed administration of 17β-estradiol can reduce ICH-induced brain damage, and whether these effects are estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent.

Methods

Male and female Sprague—Dawley rats received an infusion of 100 µl autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. Twenty-four hours later the rats were killed. The effects of 17β-estradiol on ICH-induced brain injury were examined by measuring brain edema and neurological deficits. Both ER-α and hemeoxygenase (HO)-1 were investigated through Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis.

Brain edema was significantly less severe in female compared with that in male rats. The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 exacerbated ICH-induced brain edema in female but not in male rats, indicating that ER-α activation during ICH is protective in female rats. Administration of exogenous 17β-estradiol in male, but not in female, rats significantly attenuated brain edema, neurological deficits, and ICH-induced changes in HO-1 when given 2 hours after hemorrhage. The effects of exogenous 17β-estradiol occurred through an ER-independent mechanism.

Conclusions

Results in this study indicate that 17β-estradiol could be a potential therapeutic agent for ICH.

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Keun Young Park, Jung Yong Ahn, Jun Hyung Cho, Young Chul Choi and Kyu Sung Lee

✓Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating syndrome defined principally by its tendency to affect optic nerves and the spinal cord selectively. Asymptomatic brain lesions have recently become a common finding in NMO, and symptomatic brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of this entity. The authors describe the case of a 12-year-old girl suffering from an unusually atypical form of NMO in which a brainstem lesion was mistaken for a brainstem glioma. Brainstem involvement in NMO exhibits variable features on neuroimaging and is confused with brainstem glioma in cases of extensive brainstem involvement in childhood. Careful differential diagnosis and proper treatment are vital for a favorable prognosis.