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Jung Ho Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chul-Kee Park, Sun Ha Paek, Jeong Eun Kim, Hee-Won Jung and Dae Hee Han

Object

In this paper the authors analyzed the clinical and neuroimaging outcomes of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the analysis of the radiation injury rate depending on the AVM volume.

Methods

Between 1997 and 2004, 277 consecutive patients with cerebral AVMs were treated with GKS. Of these patients, 218 were followed up for ≥ 2 years. The mean age was 31 ± 15 years, the median AVM volume was 3.4 cm3 (range 0.17–35.2 cm3), the median marginal dose was 18.0 Gy (range 10.0–25.0 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 44 ± 20 months. The authors reduced the prescription dose by various amounts, depending on the AVM volume and location as prescribed in the classic guideline to avoid irreversible radiation injuries.

Results

The angiographic obliteration rate was 66.4% overall, and it was 81.7, 53.1, and 12.5% for small, medium, and large AVMs, respectively. The overall annual bleeding rate was 1.9%. The annual bleeding rate was 0.44 and 4.64% for small and large AVMs, respectively. Approximately 20% of the patients showed severe postradiosurgery imaging (PRI) changes. The rate of PRI change was 11.4, 33.3, and 9.5% for small, medium, and large AVM volume groups, respectively, and a permanent radiation injury developed in 5.1% of patients.

Conclusions

By using the reduced dose from what is usually prescribed, the authors were able to obtain outcomes in small AVMs that were comparable to the outcomes described in previous reports. However, medium AVMs appear to still be at risk for adverse radiation effects. Last, in large AVMs, the authors were able to attain a tolerable rate of radiation injury; however, the clinical outcomes were quite disappointing following administration of a reduced dose of GKS for large AVMs.

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Kihwan Hwang, Yong Hwy Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Jung Hyun Lee, Hee Kyung Yang, Jeong-Min Hwang, Chae-Yong Kim and Jung Ho Han

OBJECTIVE

The authors investigated the natural history of asymptomatic nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) with optic nerve compression.

METHODS

This study retrospectively analyzed the natural history of asymptomatic NFPAs with documented optic nerve compression on MRI diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 from 2 institutions. The patients were followed up with regular endocrinological, ophthalmological, and radiological evaluations, and the endpoint was new endocrinopathy or neurological deficits.

RESULTS

The study comprised 81 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 58.0 years and the follow-up duration was 60.0 months. As the denominator of overall pituitary patients, 2604 patients were treated with surgery after diagnosis at the 2 institutions during the same period. The mean initial and last measured values for tumor diameter were 23.7 ± 8.9 mm and 26.2 ± 11.4 mm, respectively (mean ± SD). Tumor growth was observed in 51 (63.0%) patients; however, visual deterioration was observed in 14 (17.3%) patients. Ten (12.3%) patients experienced endocrine deterioration. Fourteen (17.3%) patients underwent surgery for either visual deterioration (in 12 patients) or endocrine dysfunction (in 2 patients). After surgery, all patients experienced improvements in visual or hormonal function. The actuarial rates of treatment-free survival at 2, 3, and 5 years were 96.1%, 93.2%, and 85.6%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, initial cavernous sinus invasion (HR 4.985, 95% CI 1.597–15.56; p = 0.006) was the only independent risk factor for eventual treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

The neuroendocrinological deteriorations were not frequent and could be recovered by surgery with early detection on regular follow-up in asymptomatic NFPAs with documented optic nerve compression on MRI. Therefore, conservative management could be an acceptable strategy for these tumors. Careful follow-up is required for tumors with cavernous sinus invasion.

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Cheng-Loong Liang, Meng-Wei Ho, Kang Lu, Yu-Duan Tsai, Po-Chou Liliang, Kuo-Wei Wang and Han-Jung Chen

Object

The authors conducted a study to assess the eye lens dosimetry in trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment when using the Leksell Gamma Knife model C.

Methods

Phantom studies were used to measure the maximal dose reaching the eye lens with and without eye shielding. Six consecutive patients with TN were evaluated for Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The maximum prescribed dose of 80 Gy was delivered with a single shot using the 4-mm collimator helmet. High-sensitivity thermoluminescence dosimeter chips (TLDCs) were used to measure the dosimetry.

In vitro, the Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) system predicted the mean maximal doses of 1.08 ± 0.08 and 0.15 ± 0.01 Gy (mean ± standard deviation) to the lens ipsilateral to the treated trigeminal nerve without and with eye shielding, respectively. The TLDCs-measured dosimetry indicated the mean maximal doses of 1.12 ± 0.09 and 0.17 ± 0.01 Gy without and with eye shielding, respectively. The maximal doses to the lens contralateral to the nerve were similar.

In vivo, the LGP predicted the mean maximal doses to the lens ipsilateral to the treated nerve as 1.1 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.02 Gy, respectively, without and with eye shielding. The dosimetry measured by TLDCs indicated the mean maximal dose to the lens ipsilateral to the treated nerve as 0.17 ± 0.02 Gy with eye shielding. The mean maximal doses to the lens contralateral to the nerve were similar. Using the 110 and 125˚ gamma angles, the LGP predicted the mean maximal doses of 0.32 ± 0.04 and 0.12 ± 0.04 Gy to the lens without and with eye shielding, respectively.

Conclusions

Patients with TN undergoing GKS without eye shielding may develop cataracts due to the high radiation dose to the eye lenses. The authors suggest the routine use of bilateral eye shielding for the patients.

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Dong Gyu Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Ho-Shin Gwak, Sun Ha Paek, Hee-Won Jung and Dae Hee Han

Object. The authors conducted an analysis of prognostic factors for patient survival and local control of brain metastases after gamma knife radiosurgery.

Methods. In the survival analysis, 53 consecutive patients with 121 lesions treated in the last 2 years were examined. Common primary sites were lung (26 patients), kidney (seven), breast (three), and colon (three). Patient age ranged from 28 to 75 years (median 58 years) and the female/male ratio was 1:0.9. The median tumor volume was 2.1 cm3 (range 0.02–45.5cm3) and the average prescription dose was 15.4 Gy to the 50% isodose. The median follow up was 12 months (range 1–23 months) and the median survival was 46 weeks.

Six-month and 1-year survival rates were 63% and 39%, respectively. Karnofsky Performance Scale score, tumor volume, and presence of extracranial disease were statistically significant prognostic factors (p < 0.05) for survival in multivariate analysis. Number of lesions, patient age, and adjuvant whole-brain radiation therapy were not statistically significant. Ninety-one of 121 lesions with follow-up images were included in the local control analysis. The 1-year actuarial local control rate was 48%. In multivariate analysis smaller volume was associated with better control (p = 0.0043), and, control period of renal cell carcinoma was shorter than that of the other tumor types (p = 0.0070).

Conclusions. Karnofsky Performance Scale score, tumor volume, controlled primary cancer, and absence of extracranial metastases were associated with longer survival in the present study. For local control, tumor volume was a statistically significant factor.

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Yong Hwy Kim, Chiman Jeon, Young-Bem Se, Sang Duk Hong, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-II Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Doo Hee Han, Do-Hyun Nam and Doo-Sik Kong

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic endonasal approach for treating primary skull base malignancies involving the clivus is a formidable task. The authors hypothesized that tumor involvement of nearby critical anatomical structures creates hurdles to endoscopic gross-total resection (GTR). The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach to treat primary malignancies involving the clivus and to analyze prognostic factors for GTR.

METHODS

Between January 2009 and November 2015, 42 patients underwent the endoscopic endonasal approach for resection of primary skull base malignancies involving the clivus at 2 independent institutions. Clinical data; tumor locations within the clivus; and anatomical involvement of the cavernous or paraclival internal carotid artery, cisternal trigeminal nerve, hypoglossal canal, and dura mater were investigated to assess the extent of resection. Possible prognostic factors affecting GTR were also analyzed.

RESULTS

Of the 42 patients, 37 were diagnosed with chordomas and 5 were diagnosed with chondrosarcomas. The mean (± SD) preoperative tumor volume was 25.2 ± 30.5 cm3 (range 0.8–166.7 cm3). GTR was achieved in 28 patients (66.7%) and subtotal resection in 14 patients (33.3%). All tumors were classified as upper (n = 17), middle (n = 17), or lower (n = 8) clival tumors based on clival involvement, and as central (24 [57.1%]) or paramedian (18 [42.9%]) based on laterality of the tumor. Univariate analysis identified the tumor laterality (OR 6.25, 95% CI 1.51–25.86; p = 0.011) as significantly predictive of GTR. In addition, the laterality of the tumor was found to be a statistically significant predictor in multivariate analysis (OR 41.16, 95% CI 1.12–1512.65; p = 0.043).

CONCLUSIONS

An endoscopic endonasal approach can provide favorable clinical and surgical outcomes. However, the tumor laterality should be considered as a potential obstacle to total removal.

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Young-Hoon Kim, Chi Heon Kim, June Sic Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Jung Ho Han, Chae-Yong Kim and Chun Kee Chung

Object

Supplementary motor area (SMA) resection often induces postoperative contralateral hemiparesis or speech disturbance. This study was performed to assess the neurological impairments that often follow SMA resection and to assess the risk factors associated with these postoperative deficits.

Methods

The records for patients who had undergone SMA resection for pharmacologically intractable epilepsy between 1994 and 2010 were gleaned from an epilepsy surgery database and retrospectively reviewed in this study.

Results

Forty-three patients with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy underwent SMA resection with intraoperative cortical stimulation and mapping while under awake anesthesia. The mean patient age was 31.7 years (range 15–63 years), and the mean duration and frequency of seizures were 10.4 years (range 0.1–30 years) and 14.6 per month (range 0.1–150 per month), respectively. Pathological examination of the brain revealed cortical dysplasia in 18 patients (41.9%), tumors in 16 patients (37.2%), and other lesions in 9 patients (20.9%). The mean duration of the follow-up period was 84.0 months (range 24–169 months). After SMA resection, 23 patients (53.5%) experienced neurological deficits. Three patients (7.0%) experienced permanent deficits, and 20 (46.5%) experienced symptoms that were transient. All permanent deficits involved contralateral weakness, whereas the transient symptoms patients experienced were varied, including contralateral weaknesses in 15, apraxia in 1, sensory disturbances in 1, and dysphasia in 6. Thirteen patients recovered completely within 1 month. Univariate analysis revealed that resection of the SMA proper, a shorter lifetime seizure history (< 10 years), and resection of the cingulate gyrus in addition to the SMA were associated with the development of neurological deficits (p = 0.078, 0.069, and 0.023, respectively). Cingulate gyrus resection was the only risk factor identified on multivariate analysis (p = 0.027, OR 6.530, 95% CI 1.234–34.562).

Conclusions

Resection of the cingulate gyrus in addition to the SMA was significantly associated with the development of postoperative neurological impairment.

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Dong Gyu Kim, Je G. Chi, Sung Hye Park, Kee Hyun Chang, Sun Ho Lee, Hee-Won Jung, Hyun Jib Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kil Soo Choi and Dae Hee Han

✓ A retrospective analysis of seven patients with intraventricular neurocytoma is presented. Patient age at diagnosis ranged from 15 to 38 years (mean 24.6 years) and the male:female ratio was 6:1. Raised intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus was the main cause of the clinical manifestations. An isodense mass with multiple intratumoral cysts and homogeneous contrast enhancement was the characteristic computerized tomography finding. The lesions commonly involved the lateral ventricle with or without extension to the third ventricle. Cerebral angiography showed homogeneous vascular staining in five patients. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass isointense with the cerebral cortex on both T1 and T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-enhanced images showed homogeneous enhancement. Total removal of the tumor was possible in four patients. Pathologically, six cases were initially diagnosed as oligodendroglioma and the remaining case as ependymoma. However, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated strong positivity for neuron-specific enolase in all seven cases and for synaptophysin in five cases. On electron microscopy, three cases showed well-defined neurosecretory granules and 10-nm microtubules in their cytoplasm and cytoplasmic processes. One patient developed a recurrent tumor 18 months after surgery. The remaining six patients are free of recurrent tumors at 2 to 62 months after surgery. It is suggested that neurocytoma must be included in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular lesions, and that electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies should be undertaken.

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Young-Hoon Kim, Young Jin Lee, Jung Ho Han, Soyeon Ahn, Jaebong Lee, Jae Hyoung Kim, Byung Se Choi, Jae Seung Bang, Chae-Yong Kim, Gyojun Hwang, O-Ki Kwon and Chang Wan Oh

OBJECT

The authors aimed to assess whether the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in patients with intracranial meningiomas was higher than that in a healthy population.

METHODS

The authors performed a hospital-based case-control study of 300 patients with newly diagnosed intracranial meningiomas and 900 age- and sex-matched controls without a history of brain tumors to evaluate any associations between intracranial aneurysms and intracranial meningiomas. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression models were used for case-control comparisons.

RESULTS

Intracranial aneurysms were identified in 23 patients (7.7%) and 24 controls (2.7%; p < 0.001). There was a significant association between intracranial aneurysms and intracranial meningiomas (OR 2.913, 95% CI 1.613–5.261) and hypertension (OR 1.905, 95% CI 1.053–3.446). In a subgroup analysis of the patients with newly diagnosed intracranial meningiomas, there was a significant association between intracranial aneurysms and hypertension (OR 2.876, 95% CI 1.125–7.352) and tumor volume (OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.001–1.024). These patients were also more likely than controls to have other intracranial vascular diseases (p < 0.001), such as isolated occlusion of the intracranial vessels, excluding intracranial aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS

The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms was higher in patients with intracranial meningiomas. Hypertension and tumor volume appear to be associated with the formation of intracranial aneurysms in these patients.

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Roh-Eul Yoo, Tae Jin Yun, Young Dae Cho, Jung Hyo Rhim, Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Ji-hoon Kim, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Sun-Won Park and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

Arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging (ASL-PWI) enables quantification of tissue perfusion without contrast media administration. The aim of this study was to explore whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) from ASL-PWI can reliably predict angiographic vascularity of meningiomas.

METHODS

Twenty-seven patients with intracranial meningiomas, who had undergone preoperative ASL-PWI and digital subtraction angiography prior to resection, were included. Angiographic vascularity was assessed using a 4-point grading scale and meningiomas were classified into 2 groups: low vascularity (Grades 0 and 1; n = 11) and high vascularity (Grades 2 and 3; n = 16). Absolute CBF, measured at the largest section of the tumor, was normalized to the contralateral gray matter. Correlation between the mean normalized CBF (nCBF) and angiographic vascularity was determined and the mean nCBF values of the 2 groups were compared. Diagnostic performance of the nCBF for differentiating between the 2 groups was assessed.

RESULTS

The nCBF had a significant positive correlation with angiographic vascularity (ρ = 0.718; p < 0.001). The high-vascularity group had a significantly higher nCBF than the low-vascularity group (3.334 ± 2.768 and 0.909 ± 0.468, respectively; p = 0.003). At the optimal nCBF cutoff value of 1.733, sensitivity and specificity for the differential diagnosis of the 2 groups were 69% (95% CI 41%–89%) and 100% (95% CI 72%–100%), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.875 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

ASL-PWI may provide a reliable and noninvasive means of predicting angiographic vascularity of meningiomas. It may thus assist in selecting potential candidates for preoperative digital subtraction angiography and embolization in clinical practice.