Although extremely rare, retention of foreign bodies such as microcatheters or micro guidewires can occur during various neurovascular procedures due to gluing of the microcatheter tip or entanglement of the micro guidewire tip with intravascular devices. The authors have experienced 2 cases of irresolvable wire retention, one after flow diverter placement for a left cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm and the other after intracranial stenting for acute basilar artery occlusion. The first patient presented 6 weeks after her procedure with right lung parenchymal hemorrhage due to direct piercing of the lung parenchyma after the retained wire fractured and migrated out of the aortic arch. The second patient presented 4 years after his procedure with pneumothorax due to migration of the fractured guidewire segment into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, the authors discuss the possible mechanisms of these unusual complications and how to prevent delayed consequences from a retained intravascular metallic wire.
Hae-Won Koo, Wonhyoung Park, Kuhyun Yang, Jung Cheol Park, Jae Sung Ahn, Sun Uck Kwon, Changmo Hwang and Deok Hee Lee
Jung Cheol Park, Deok Hee Lee, Jae Kyun Kim, Jae Sung Ahn, Byung Duk Kwun, Dae Yoon Kim and Choong Gon Choi
The incidence and risk factors of microembolic lesions on MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were analyzed after the endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs).
Data obtained from 271 consecutive patients (70 men and 201 women; median age 57 years; range 23–79 years) who presented with UIA for coil embolization between July 2011 and June 2013 were analyzed. Two independent reviewers examined the DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained the following day for the presence of restrictive diffusion spots and counted the number of spots. Multivariate analysis was then performed to identify independent risk factors for developing microembolism following the coiling of an aneurysm.
Microembolic lesions were noted in 101 of 271 patients (37.3%). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that the following factors significantly influenced the risk for microembolism: age, diabetes, previous history of ischemic stroke, high-signal FLAIR lesions in the white matter, multiple aneurysms, and the insertion of an Enterprise stent (all ORs > 1.0 and all p values < 0.05). Previously known risk factors such as prolonged procedure duration, aneurysm size, and decreased antiplatelet function did not show any significant influence.
The incidence of microembolism after endovascular coiling of UIA was not low. Lesions occurred more frequently in patients with vascular status associated with old age, diabetes, and previous stroke. Aneurysm multiplicity and the type of stent used for treatment also influenced lesion occurrence.
Suk-Joo Hong, Youn-Kwan Park, Jung Hyuk Kim, Soon Hyuck Lee, Kyung Nam Ryu, Cheol Min Park and Yeon Soo Kim
The authors evaluate the biomechanical properties of vertebral bodies (VBs) stabilized with calcium phosphate (CaP) cements for use in vertebroplasty in comparison with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
In the first phase of the study, 73 VBs (T3–L2; thoracic region [T3–8] and thoracolumbar region [T9–L2]) were collected from seven fresh human cadavers. Compression tests were performed before and after vertebroplasty using PMMA (compression strength 80 MPa) and three kinds of CaP cements—CaP1 (5 MPa), CaP2 (20 MPa), and CaP3 (50 MPa). The authors compared the maximal compression loads (MCLs) and stiffness before and after vertebroplasty in each of the four cement groups. In the second phase of the study, 18 paired spinal units (PSUs) were collected from three fresh human cadavers, and the authors injected two types of cement selected from the first phase of the study into the lower level of six PSUs. They compared the MCLs of the untreated and two treated groups (there were six PSUs in each type of group) to analyze the tendency of inducing compression fractures in the upper level of the PSUs.
The MCLs of the PMMA-injected vertebrae were significantly increased after vertebroplasty. The MCL levels of the CaP3-injected vertebrae and the CaP2-injected thoracolumbar vertebrae were decreased from those of untreated vertebrae without being significant. The MCLs of CaP1-injected vertebrae and CaP2-injected thoracic vertebrae were significantly decreased after vertebroplasty. The stiffness of all cement groups was decreased after vertebroplasty compared with initial stiffness, significantly so in all three thoracic CaP groups. In the second compression test with PSUs, the MCLs of the CaP2- and CaP3-injected PSUs were not significantly different from those of the untreated control PSUs.
The CaP3-injected vertebrae restored the MCLs of human vertebrae closer to their initial levels than the PMMA-injected vertebrae did. The CaP2- and CaP3-injected PSUs showed no tendency to induce compression fractures in adjacent VBs.
Jaewoo Chung, Wonhyoung Park, Seok Ho Hong, Jung Cheol Park, Jae Sung Ahn, Byung Duk Kwun, Sang-Ahm Lee, Sung-Hoon Kim and Ji-Ye Jeon
Somatosensory and motor evoked potentials (SEPs and MEPs) are often used to prevent ischemic complications during aneurysm surgeries. However, surgeons often encounter cases with suspicious false-positive and false-negative results from intraoperative evoked potential (EP) monitoring, but the incidence and possible causes for these results are not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and reliability of EP monitoring in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms by evaluating false-positive and false-negative cases.
From January 2012 to April 2016, 1514 patients underwent surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) with EP monitoring at the authors’ institution. An EP amplitude decrease of 50% or greater compared with the baseline amplitude was defined as a significant EP change. Correlations between immediate postoperative motor weakness and EP monitoring results were retrospectively reviewed. The authors calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of intraoperative MEP monitoring, as well as the incidence of false-positive and false-negative results.
Eighteen (1.19%) of the 1514 patients had a symptomatic infarction, and 4 (0.26%) had a symptomatic hemorrhage. A total of 15 patients showed motor weakness, with the weakness detected on the immediate postoperative motor function test in 10 of these cases. Fifteen false-positive cases (0.99%) and 8 false-negative cases (0.53%) were reported. Therefore, MEP during UIA surgery resulted in a sensitivity of 0.10, specificity of 0.94, positive predictive value of 0.01, and negative predictive value of 0.99.
Intraoperative EP monitoring has high specificity and negative predictive value. Both false-positive and false-negative findings were present. However, it is likely that a more meticulously designed protocol will make EP monitoring a better surrogate indicator of possible ischemic neurological deficits.
Moinay Kim, Wonhyoung Park, Yeongu Chung, Si Un Lee, Jung Cheol Park, Do Hoon Kwon, Jae Sung Ahn and Seungjoo Lee
The current grading system for moyamoya disease (MMD) is focused on angiographic studies with limited clinical application. The authors aimed to determine relevant factors that may impact postoperative outcome and establish a scoring system to predict the functional outcome.
Adult patients with MMD who underwent treatment between 1998 and 2016 were included. Factors such as age, sex, comorbidity, smoking, MMD family history, initial presentation, multimodal imaging modalities, and types of surgical revascularization were thoroughly reviewed. These factors were analyzed to determine possible risk factors related to unfavorable 6-month postoperative outcomes using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (unfavorable: mRS score ≥ 3). A scoring system was developed using these independent risk factors to predict the outcome and validated using prospectively collected data from multiple centers between 2017 and 2018.
Of 302 patients for whom applications were submitted, 260 patients (321 hemispheres) met the diagnostic criteria. In multivariate analysis, hyperlipidemia, smoking, cerebral infarction on preoperative CT or MRI, and moderately to severely reduced regional cerebrovascular reserve results from Diamox SPECT were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. The authors developed a scoring system and stratified patients into risk groups according to their scores: low-risk (score 0–3), intermediate-risk (score 4–6), and high-risk (score 7–9) groups. This model demonstrated both good discrimination and calibration using C-statistics and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showing 0.812 (95% CI 0.743–0.881) (p = 0.568) for the development and 0.954 (95% CI 0.896–1) (p = 0.097) for the temporal and external validation cohort.
The authors’ scoring system is readily adoptable to predict the postoperative outcome for MMD. Their data revealed the importance of smoking and hyperlipidemia, which were the only modifiable factors included in the scoring system. The authors validated their scoring system both internally and externally and maintained good performance, highlighting the system’s generalizability and reliability.
Jae Hyo Park, Jeong Eun Kim, Seung Hun Sheen, Cheol Kyu Jung, Bae Ju Kwon, O-Ki Kwon, Chang Wan Oh, Moon Hee Han and Dae Hee Han
Experience with intraarterial abciximab for the treatment of thromboembolism during endovascular coil embolization is limited. The authors report the outcome of intraarterial abciximab use, with an emphasis on fatal hemorrhagic complications.
Between March 2003 and May 2006, the authors treated 606 aneurysms by using endovascular coil embolization, and in 32 (5.3%) of these aneurysms (31 patients) an intraarterial thrombus developed. Sixteen of these aneurysms were ruptured and the other 16 were unruptured. Arterial thrombi were totally occlusive in 3 and partially occlusive in the remaining 29 cases. Intraarterial abciximab was administered at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml as a bolus of 4–15 mg over a period of 15–30 minutes.
Complete thrombolysis was achieved in 17 (53%) and partial thrombolysis in 15 (47%) of 32 lesions. Twenty-eight patients (90.3%) were asymptomatic after abciximab thrombolysis, but 3 had postprocedural rebleeding that occurred after abciximab treatment; all of these patients had recently experienced an aneurysm rupture. Of these patients, 1 displayed severe thrombocytopenia and the other 2 showed a > 25% reduction in platelet count after abciximab treatment.
Intraarterial abciximab is effective for the treatment of thromboembolic complications that occur during intracranial aneurysm coil insertion. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to prevent potentially fatal complications such as thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage, especially in patients with a ruptured aneurysm.
Young Mi Yoo, Yong Jung Kim, Uhn Lee, Doo Jin Paik, Hyun Tae Yoo, Cheol Wan Park, Young Bo Kim, Sang Goo Lee, Woo Kyung Kim and Chan Jong Yoo
Parkinson disease (PD) is a well-known degenerative disease resulting in the depletion of dopamine-producing neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Adenoviral vector delivery of neurotrophic factors may provide a potential therapy for PD. The authors examined whether glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) delivered via adenoviral vector (Ad-GDNF) could promote functional recovery in a rat model of PD. Additionally, they examined whether neural precursor cells (NPCs) provide the therapeutic potential of cultured neural cells for cell regeneration and replacement in PD.
All animals underwent stereotactic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the right substantia nigra. Eight weeks later, the rats were tested for apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry and evaluation of explanted grafts infected with the complementary DNA for GDNF containing NPCs and NPCs alone. In the NPC cultures of embryonic rat striata, the authors found that basic fibroblast growth factor induced the proliferation of stem cells, which give rise to spheres of undifferentiated cells that generate neurons and glia.
In this study the authors found that the reduction of apomorphine-induced rotation was more prominent in parkinsonian rats that received Ad-GDNF-treated grafts containing NPCs (61%) than in those that received grafts of NPCs alone (16%).