Dahye Kim, June Sic Kim, Woorim Jeong, Min-Sup Shin and Chun Kee Chung
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery is associated with a risk of memory decline after surgery, but the effect of the extent and locus of temporal resection on postoperative memory function are controversial. The authors’ aim in this study was to confirm if selective resection is effective in preserving memory function and identify critical areas for specific memory decline after temporal resection.
In this single-center retrospective study, the authors investigated data from patients who underwent unilateral MTLE surgery between 2005 and 2015. Data from 74 MTLE patients (60.8% of whom were female; mean [SD] age at surgery 32 years [8.91 years] and duration of epilepsy 16 years [9.65 years]) with histologically proven hippocampal sclerosis were included. Forty-two patients underwent left-sided surgery. The resection area was manually delineated on each patient’s postoperative T1-weighted images. Mapping was performed to see if the resected group, compared with the nonresected group, had worse postoperative memory in various memory domains, including verbal item, verbal associative, and figural memory.
Overall, 95.9% had a favorable epilepsy outcome. In verbal item memory, resection of the left lateral temporal area was related to postoperative decline in immediate and delayed recall scores of word lists. In verbal associative memory, resection of the anterior part of the left hippocampus, left parahippocampal area, and left lateral temporal area was related to postoperative decline in immediate recall scores of word pairs. Resection of the posterior part of the left hippocampus, left parahippocampal area, and left lateral temporal area was related to delayed recall scores of the same task. Similarly, in the figural memory, postoperative decline of immediate recall scores was associated with the resection of the anterior part of the right hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal area, and superior temporal area, and decline of delayed recall scores was related to resection of the posterior part of the right hippocampus and parahippocampal area.
Using voxel-based analysis, which accounts for the individual differences in the resection, the authors found a critical region for postoperative memory decline that is not revealed in the region-of-interest or groupwise comparison. Particularly, resection of the hippocampus was related to associative memory. In both verbal and visual memory, resection of the anterior part of the hippocampus was associated with immediate recall, and resection of the posterior part of the hippocampus was associated with delayed recall. Therefore, the authors’ results suggest that selective resection may be effective in preserving postoperative memory decline.
Woorim Jeong, Hyeongrae Lee, June Sic Kim and Chun Kee Chung
How the brain supports intermediate-term preservation of memory in patients who have undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection (MTLR) has not yet been demonstrated. To understand the neural basis of episodic memory in the intermediate term after surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the authors investigated the relationship between the activation of the hippocampus (HIP) during successful memory encoding and individual memory capacity in patients who had undergone MTLR. They also compared hippocampal activation with other parameters, including structural volumes of the HIP, duration of illness, and age at seizure onset.
Thirty-five adult patients who had undergone unilateral MTLR at least 1 year before recruiting and who had a favorable seizure outcome were enrolled (17 left MTLR, 18 right MTLR; mean follow-up 6.31 ± 2.72 years). All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological examination of memory function and functional MRI scanning with a memory-encoding paradigm of words and figures. Activations of the HIP during successful memory encoding were calculated and compared with standard neuropsychological memory scores, hippocampal volumes, and other clinical variables.
Greater activation in the HIP contralateral to the side of the resection was related to higher postoperative memory scores and greater postoperative memory improvement than the preoperative baseline in both patient groups. Specifically, postoperative verbal memory performance was positively correlated with contralateral right hippocampal activation during word encoding in the left-sided surgery group. In contrast, postoperative visual memory performance was positively correlated with contralateral left hippocampal activation during figure encoding in the right-sided surgery group. Activation of the ipsilateral remnant HIP was not correlated with any memory scores or volumes of the HIP; however, it had a negative correlation with the seizure-onset age and positive correlation with the duration of illness in both patient groups.
For the first time, a neural basis that supports effective intermediate-term episodic memory after unilateral MTLR has been characterized. The results provide evidence that engagement of the HIP contralateral rather than ipsilateral to the side of resection is responsible for effective memory function in the intermediate term (> 1 year) after surgery in patients who have undergone left MTLR and right MTLR. Engagement of the material-specific contralesional HIP, verbal memory in the left-sided surgery group, and visual memory in the right-sided surgery group were observed.
Won Heo, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung and Sang Kun Lee
In this study, the authors investigated long-term clinical and visual outcomes of patients after occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) surgery and analyzed the relationship between visual cortical resection and visual function after OLE surgery.
A total of 42 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with OLE and underwent occipital lobe resection between June 1995 and November 2013 were included. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were reviewed retrospectively. Seizure outcomes were categorized according to the Engel classification. Visual function after surgery was assessed using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25. The relationship between the resected area of the visual cortex and visual function was demonstrated by multivariate linear regression models.
After a mean follow-up period of 102.2 months, 27 (64.3%) patients were seizure free, and 6 (14.3%) patients had an Engel Class II outcome. Nineteen (57.6%) of 33 patients had a normal visual field or quadrantanopia after surgery (normal and quadrantanopia groups). Patients in the normal and quadrantanopia groups had better vision-related quality of life than those in the hemianopsia group. The resection of lateral occipital areas 1 and 2 of the occipital lobe was significantly associated with difficulties in general vision, peripheral vision, and vision-specific roles. In addition, the resection of intraparietal sulcus 3 or 4 was significantly associated with decreased social functioning.
The authors found a favorable seizure control rate (Engel Class I or II) of 78.6%, and 57.6% of the subjects had good visual function (normal vision or quadrantanopia) after OLE surgery. Lateral occipital cortical resection had a significant effect on visual function despite preservation of the visual field.
Chi Heon Kim, Chun-Kee Chung, June Sic Kim, Tae Ahn Jahng, June Ho Lee and In Chan Song
Recently, diffusion tensor (DT) imaging was introduced to demonstrate white matter tracts. However, research interest has focused on the anatomical rather than the functional aspects of this imaging modality. The authors undertook a functional analysis of DT imaging to determine the relationship between weakness and changes on DT images.
Diffusion tensor images were obtained in 23 patients with lesions located adjacent to the pyramidal tract. Patients were classified according to their motor deficit. Axial magnetic resonance image sections through the maximum tumor diameters were selected and the mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and mean fractional anisotropies (FAs) were measured. One ovoid region of interest (ovROI) was placed in the center of the pyramidal tract and another was designed to include the whole pyramidal tract at the same axial level (wROI). To determine intraobserver variability, a single neurosurgeon measured mean ADCs and FAs four times by using these two different ROI types without knowledge of any clinical information. To determine interobserver variability, a second neurosurgeon who was also unaware of any clinical information measured the mean ADCs and FAs by using the wROI method.
The five measurements produced the same results. The mean FA at the lesion side of the pyramidal tract was significantly lower in patients with weakness (p < 0.01). Little intraobserver measurement variability occurred using the ovROI method, and no interobserver variability occurred using the wROI method.
Motor weakness was significantly related to a low mean FA in the pyramidal tract on the lesion side. Designing an ROI that includes the whole pyramidal tract is an easier and more reproducible method than using an ovROI method.
Young-Hoon Kim, Chi Heon Kim, June Sic Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Jung Ho Han, Chae-Yong Kim and Chun Kee Chung
Supplementary motor area (SMA) resection often induces postoperative contralateral hemiparesis or speech disturbance. This study was performed to assess the neurological impairments that often follow SMA resection and to assess the risk factors associated with these postoperative deficits.
The records for patients who had undergone SMA resection for pharmacologically intractable epilepsy between 1994 and 2010 were gleaned from an epilepsy surgery database and retrospectively reviewed in this study.
Forty-three patients with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy underwent SMA resection with intraoperative cortical stimulation and mapping while under awake anesthesia. The mean patient age was 31.7 years (range 15–63 years), and the mean duration and frequency of seizures were 10.4 years (range 0.1–30 years) and 14.6 per month (range 0.1–150 per month), respectively. Pathological examination of the brain revealed cortical dysplasia in 18 patients (41.9%), tumors in 16 patients (37.2%), and other lesions in 9 patients (20.9%). The mean duration of the follow-up period was 84.0 months (range 24–169 months). After SMA resection, 23 patients (53.5%) experienced neurological deficits. Three patients (7.0%) experienced permanent deficits, and 20 (46.5%) experienced symptoms that were transient. All permanent deficits involved contralateral weakness, whereas the transient symptoms patients experienced were varied, including contralateral weaknesses in 15, apraxia in 1, sensory disturbances in 1, and dysphasia in 6. Thirteen patients recovered completely within 1 month. Univariate analysis revealed that resection of the SMA proper, a shorter lifetime seizure history (< 10 years), and resection of the cingulate gyrus in addition to the SMA were associated with the development of neurological deficits (p = 0.078, 0.069, and 0.023, respectively). Cingulate gyrus resection was the only risk factor identified on multivariate analysis (p = 0.027, OR 6.530, 95% CI 1.234–34.562).
Resection of the cingulate gyrus in addition to the SMA was significantly associated with the development of postoperative neurological impairment.