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Taichi Tachikawa, Jun-ichi Adachi, Ryo Nishikawa and Masao Matsutani

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Jun-ichi Adachi, Katsumi Ohbayashi, Tomonari Suzuki and Tomio Sasaki

Object. Genetic alterations of the PTEN gene (also known as MMAC1 or TEP1) have frequently been identified in high-grade gliomas, indicating that inactivation of PTEN plays a crucial role in human glioma progression. The aim of this study was to assess the biological significance of PTEN inactivation in the development of glioma.

Methods. The authors introduced wild-type PTEN complementary DNA into four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U-251MG, U-87MG, and A172) containing endogenous aberrant PTEN alleles. The number of colonies transfected with the wild-type PTEN was reduced to 15 to 32% of those found after transfection of a control vector, suggesting growth suppression by the exogenous PTEN. To analyze phenotypic alterations produced by PTEN expression, T98G-derived clones with inducible PTEN expression were further established using a tetracycline-regulated inducible gene expression system. Induction of PTEN expression suppressed the in vitro growth of T98G cells with accumulation of G1 phase cells. Furthermore, when cells were cultured in the presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM), PTEN expression caused distinct morphological changes, with multiple and elongated cytoplasmic processes similar to those of normal astrocytes. The level of glial fibrillary acidic protein, an intermediate protein specifically expressed in differentiated astrocytes, was upregulated concomitantly.

Conclusions. These findings strongly indicate that exogenous PTEN expression inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing G1 arrest and elicits astrocytic differentiation in the presence of the ECM. Inactivation of PTEN would play an important role in the enhancement of unregulated growth of undifferentiated glioma cells.

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Tomonari Suzuki, Satoru Wada, Hidetaka Eguchi, Jun-ichi Adachi, Kazuhiko Mishima, Masao Matsutani, Ryo Nishikawa and Masahiko Nishiyama


Gliomas contain aggressive malignant cancer, and resection rate remains an important factor in treatment. Currently, fluorescence-guided resection using orally administered 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has proved to be beneficial in improving the prognosis of patients with gliomas. 5-ALA is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that accumulates selectively in the tumor and exhibits strong fluorescence upon excitation, but glioma cells do not always respond to 5-ALA, which can result in incomplete or excessive resection. Several possible mechanisms for this phenomenon have been suggested, but they remain poorly understood. To clarify the probable mechanisms underlying the variable induction of fluorescence and to improve fluorescence-guided surgery, the authors searched for key negative regulators of fluorescent signal induced by 5-ALA.


A comprehensive gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays in 11 pairs of tumor specimens, fluorescence-positive and fluorescence-negative tumors, and screened genes overexpressed specifically in fluorescence-negative tumors as the possible candidates for key negative regulators of 5-ALA–induced fluorescence. The most possible candidate was selected through annotation analysis in combination with a comparison of expression levels, and the relevance of expression of the selected gene to 5-ALA–induced fluorescence in tumor tissues was confirmed in the quantified expression levels. The biological significance of an identified gene in PpIX accumulation and 5-ALA–induced fluorescence was evaluated by in vitro PpIX fluorescence intensity analysis and in vitro PpIX fluorescence molecular imaging in 4 human glioblastoma cell lines (A1207, NMCG1, U251, and U373). Knockdown analyses using a specific small interfering RNA in U251 cells was also performed to determine the mechanisms of action and genes working as partners in the 5-ALA metabolic pathway.


The authors chose 251 probes that showed remarkably high expression only in fluorescent-negative tumors (median intensity of expression signal > 1.0), and eventually the cadherin 13 gene (CDH13) was selected as the most possible determinant of 5-ALA–induced fluorescent signal in gliomas. The mean expression level of CDH13 in the fluorescence-negative gliomas was statistically higher than that in positive ones (p = 0.027), and knockdown of CDH13 expression enhanced the fluorescence image and increased the amount of PpIX 13-fold over controls (p < 0.001) in U251 glioma cells treated with 5-ALA. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of the CDH13-knockdown U251 cells demonstrated another two genes possibly involved in the PpIX biosynthesis: ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCG2) significantly decreased in the CDH13 knockdown, while oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) increased.


The cadherin 13 gene might play a role in the PpIX accumulation pathway and act as a negative regulator of 5-ALA–induced fluorescence in glioma cells. Although further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action in the 5-ALA metabolic pathway would be indispensable, the results of this study might lead to a novel fluorescent marker able to overcome the obstacles of existing fluorescence-guided resection and improve the limited resection rate.

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Kohei Fukuoka, Takaaki Yanagisawa, Tomonari Suzuki, Mitsuaki Shirahata, Jun-ichi Adachi, Kazuhiko Mishima, Takamitsu Fujimaki, Hideki Katakami, Masao Matsutani and Ryo Nishikawa


Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) can be detected in a certain population of patients with a germinoma, but the frequency of germinoma HCG secretion and the prognostic value of HCG in the CSF are unknown.


The authors measured HCG levels in sera and CSF in patients with a histologically confirmed germinoma by using a highly sensitive assay known as an immune complex transfer enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which is more than 100 times as sensitive as the conventional method, and they analyzed the correlation between HCG levels and the prognoses of patients with a germinoma.


HCG levels in sera and CSF of 35 patients with a germinoma were examined with the immune complex transfer EIA. The median CSF HCG levels in patients with a germinoma during the pretreatment and posttreatment evaluations were 192.5 pg/ml (range 1.2–13,116.5 pg/ml) and 18.7 pg/ml (1.2–283.9 pg/ml), respectively. Before treatment, the CSF HCG level was greater than the cutoff value in 85.7% of the patients with a germinoma. The authors compared survival rates among the patients by using a CSF HCG cutoff level of 1000 pg/ml, and the difference was statistically significant between the groups (p = 0.029, log-rank test).


Results of this study demonstrate that most germinomas secrete HCG. Patients with a germinoma that secretes higher amounts of HCG in their CSF experienced recurrence more frequently than those with lower CSF HCG levels.