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Yin Zhuang, Jun Lin and Huilin Yang

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Ji Eun Choi, Ho Jun Seol and Yang-Sun Cho

Endodermal cyst is a rare developmental cyst of the CNS, such as a Rathke cleft and colloid cyst lined by columnar epithelium of presumed endodermal origin. Intracranial endodermal cysts are rare, and most are found in the posterior fossa. The authors report a case of petroclival endodermal cyst with extensive bone destruction. A 12-year-old boy presented with transient facial weakness and headache. Imaging revealed a 3 × 3 × 4–cm, partial rim, enhanced cystic lesion in the petroclival area that was isointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense in T2-weighted imaging. The cyst wall was partially removed and the cyst was obliterated using a lateral approach. Histological examination revealed ciliated, simple-to-pseudostratified cuboidal epithelium with a basement membrane that was consistent with an endodermal cyst, with the rare finding of xanthogranulomatous changes.

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Ho Jun Yi, Jae Hoon Sung, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung Ho Yang and Jae Taek Hong

OBJECTIVE

Volume perfusion CT (VPCT) with added CT angiography (CTA)–like reconstruction from VPCT source data (VPCTA) can reveal multiple intracranial parameters. The authors examined the usefulness of VPCTA in terms of reducing the in-hospital time delay for mechanical thrombectomy.

METHODS

A total of 180 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at the authors’ institution between January 2014 and March 2017 were divided into 2 groups: a CTA-based thrombectomy decision group (group 1: CTA) and a VPCTA-based decision group (group 2: VPCTA). Multiple time interval categories (from symptom onset to groin puncture, from hospital arrival to groin puncture, procedure time, from symptom onset to reperfusion, and from hospital arrival to reperfusion) were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and the modified Rankin Scale, and radiological results were evaluated by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score.

RESULTS

In all of the time interval categories except for procedure time, the VPCTA group showed a significantly shorter in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period than did the CTA group. The 3-month modified Rankin Scale score was significantly lower in the VPCTA group (2.8) compared with the CTA group (3.5) (p = 0.003). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in the other clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with CTA, VPCTA significantly reduced the in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period.

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Ho Jun Yi, Jae Hoon Sung, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung Ho Yang and Jae Taek Hong

OBJECTIVE

Volume perfusion CT (VPCT) with added CT angiography (CTA)–like reconstruction from VPCT source data (VPCTA) can reveal multiple intracranial parameters. The authors examined the usefulness of VPCTA in terms of reducing the in-hospital time delay for mechanical thrombectomy.

METHODS

A total of 180 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at the authors’ institution between January 2014 and March 2017 were divided into 2 groups: a CTA-based thrombectomy decision group (group 1: CTA) and a VPCTA-based decision group (group 2: VPCTA). Multiple time interval categories (from symptom onset to groin puncture, from hospital arrival to groin puncture, procedure time, from symptom onset to reperfusion, and from hospital arrival to reperfusion) were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and the modified Rankin Scale, and radiological results were evaluated by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score.

RESULTS

In all of the time interval categories except for procedure time, the VPCTA group showed a significantly shorter in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period than did the CTA group. The 3-month modified Rankin Scale score was significantly lower in the VPCTA group (2.8) compared with the CTA group (3.5) (p = 0.003). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in the other clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with CTA, VPCTA significantly reduced the in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period.

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Peng Li, Fu Zhao, Jing Zhang, Zhenmin Wang, Xingchao Wang, Bo Wang, Zhijun Yang, Jun Yang, Zhixian Gao and Pinan Liu

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of spinal schwannomas in patients with schwannomatosis and compare them with a large cohort of patients with solitary schwannomas and neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2).

METHODS

The study was a retrospective review of 831 patients with solitary schwannomas, 65 with schwannomatosis, and 102 with NF2. The clinical, radiographic, and pathological data were extracted with specific attention to the age at onset, location of tumors, initial symptoms, family history, and treatment outcome.

RESULTS

The male-to-female ratio of patients with schwannomatosis (72.3% vs 27.7%) was significantly higher than that of patients with solitary schwannomas (53.3% vs 46.7%) and NF2 (54.0% vs 46.0%), respectively (chi-square test, p = 0.012). The mean age at the first spinal schwannoma operation of patients with NF2 (24.7 ± 10.2 years) was significantly younger than that of patients with solitary schwannomas (44.8 ± 13.2 years) and schwannomatosis (44.4 ± 14.1 years; 1-way ANOVA, p < 0.001). The initial symptoms were similar among the 3 groups, with pain being the most common. The distribution of spinal tumors among the 3 groups was significantly different. The peak locations of spinal schwannomas in patients with solitary schwannomas were at C1–3 and T12–L3; in schwannomatosis, the peak location was at T12-L5. A preferred spinal location was not evident for intradural-extramedullary tumors in NF2. Only a slight prominence in the lumbar area could be observed. The patients in the 3 groups obtained similar benefits from the operation; the recovery rates in the patients with solitary schwannomas, NF2, and schwannomatosis were 50.1%, 38.0%, and 53.9%, respectively. The prognosis varied among spinal schwannomas in the patients with schwannomatosis. Up until the last date of follow-up, most patients with schwannomatosis (81.5%) had undergone a single spinal operation, but 12 patients (18.5%) had undergone multiple spinal operations. Patients with nonsegmental schwannomatosis or those with early onset disease seemed to have a poor prognosis; they were more likely to undergo multiple spinal operations. Small cauda equina nodules were common in patients with schwannomatosis (46.7%) and NF2 (86.9%); these small schwannomas appeared to have relatively static behavior. Two patients suspicious for schwannomatosis were diagnosed with NF2 with the detection of constitutional NF2 mutations; 1 had unilateral vestibular schwannoma, and the other had suspicious bilateral trigeminal schwannomas.

CONCLUSIONS

The clinical features of spinal schwannomas vary among patients with solitary schwannomas, NF2, and schwannomatosis. Spinal schwannomas of patients with NF2 appear to be more aggressive than those in patients with solitary schwannomas and schwannomatosis. Spinal schwannomas of schwannomatosis predominate in the lumbar area, and most of them can be treated successfully with surgery. The prognosis varies among spinal schwannomas of schwannomatosis; some patients may need multiple operations due to newly developed schwannomas. Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate schwannomatosis from NF2 based on clinical manifestations. It is prudent to perform close follow-up examinations in patients with undetermined schwannomatosis and their offspring.

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Da Liu, Jun Sheng, Hong-hua Wu, Xia Kang, Qing-yun Xie, Yang Luo, Jiang-jun Zhou and Wei Zheng

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to compare stability of injectable hollow pedicle screws with different numbers of holes using different volumes of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in severely osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae and analyze the relationship between screw stability and distribution and volume of PMMA.

METHODS

Forty-eight severely osteoporotic cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were randomly divided into 3 groups—groups A, B, and C (16 vertebrae per group). The screws used in group A had 4 holes (2 pairs of holes, with the second hole of each pair placed 180° further along the thread than the first). The screws used in group B had 6 holes (3 pairs of holes, placed with the same 180° difference in position). Unmodified conventional screws were used in group C. Each group was randomly divided into subgroups 0, 1, 2, and 3, with different volumes of PMMA used in each subgroup. Type A and B pedicle screws were directly inserted into the vertebrae in groups A and B, respectively, and then different volumes of PMMA were injected through the screws into the vertebrae in subgroups 0, 1, 2, and 3. The pilot hole was filled with different volumes of PMMA followed by insertion of screws in groups C0, C1, C2, and C3. Distributions of PMMA were evaluated radiographically, and axial pull-out tests were performed to measure the maximum axial pullout strength (Fmax).

RESULTS

Radiographic examination revealed that PMMA surrounded the anterior third of the screws in the vertebral bodies (VBs) in groups A1, A2, and A3; the middle third of screws in the junction area of the vertebral body (VB) and pedicle in groups B1, B2, and B3; and the full length of screws evenly in both VB and pedicle in groups C1, C2, and C3. In addition, in groups A3 and B3, PMMA from each of the screws (left and right) was in contact with PMMA from the other screw and the PMMA was closer to the posterior wall and pedicle than in groups A1, A2, B1, and B2. One instance of PMMA leakage was found (in group B3). Two-way analysis of variance revealed that 2 factors—distribution and volume of PMMA—significantly influenced Fmax (p < 0.05) but that they were not significantly correlated (p = 0.078). The Fmax values in groups in which screws were augmented with PMMA were significantly better than those in groups in which no PMMA was used (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

PMMA can significantly improve stability of different injectable pedicle screws in severely osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae, and screw stability is significantly correlated with distribution and volume of PMMA. The closer the PMMA is to the pedicle and the greater the quantity of injected PMMA used, the greater the pedicle screw stability is. Injection of 3.0 mL PMMA through screws with 4 holes (2 pair of holes, with the screws in each pair placed on opposite sides of the screw) produces optimal stability in severely osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae.

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Teng-yu Li, Yu-lun Xu, Jun Yang, James Wang and Gui-Huai Wang

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, imaging features, differential diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis for primary spinal epidural cavernous hemangiomas.

METHODS

Fourteen patients with pathologically diagnosed non–vertebral origin cavernous hemangiomas who had undergone surgery at Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 2003 and 2012 were identified in the hospital's database. The patients' clinical data, imaging characteristics, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up were analyzed retrospectively.

RESULTS

There were 9 males and 5 females with an average age of 51.64 years. The primary epidural cavernous hemangiomas were located in the cervical spine (2 cases), cervicothoracic junction (2 cases), thoracic spine (8 cases), thoracolumbar junction (1 case), and lumbar spine (1 case). Hemorrhage was confirmed in 4 cases during surgery. Preoperatively 5 lesions were misdiagnosed as schwannoma, 1 was misdiagnosed as a meningioma, and 1 was misdiagnosed as an arachnoid cyst. Preoperative hemorrhages were identified in 2 cases. Three patients had recurrent cavernous hemangiomas. The initial presenting symptoms were local pain in 5 cases, radiculopathy in 6 cases, and myelopathy in 3 cases. Upon admission, 1 patient had radicular symptoms and 13 had myelopathic symptoms. The average symptom duration was 18 months. All patients underwent surgery; complete resection was achieved in 8 cases, subtotal resection in 4 cases, and partial resection in 2 cases. Postoperative follow-up was completed in 10 cases (average follow-up 34 months); 1 patient died, 5 patients showed clinical improvement, and 4 patients remained neurologically unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS

Total surgical removal of spine epidural cavernous hemangiomas with a chronic course is the optimum treatment and carries a good prognosis. Secondary surgery for recurrent epidural cavernous hemangioma is technically more challenging. In patients with profound myelopathy from acute hemorrhage, even prompt surgical decompression can rarely reverse all symptoms.

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Xiaohui Ren, Junmei Wang, Mengqing Hu, Haihui Jiang, Jun Yang and Zhongli Jiang

Object

Intracranial and intraspinal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rarely reported because of their extremely low incidence. Knowledge about these tumors is poor. In this study the authors aimed to analyze the incidence and clinical, radiological, and pathological features of intracranial and intraspinal MPNSTs.

Methods

Among 4000 cases of intracranial and intraspinal PNSTs surgically treated between 2004 and 2011 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, cases of MPNST were chosen for analysis and were retrospectively reviewed. To determine which parameters were associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), statistical analysis was performed.

Results

Malignant PNSTs accounted for 0.65% of the entire series of intracranial and intraspinal PNSTs. Twenty-four (92.3%) of these 26 MPNSTs were primary. Radiologically, 26.9% (7 of 26) of the MPNSTs were misdiagnosed as nonschwannoma diseases. Twenty-one patients were followed up for 1.5 to 102 months after surgery. Twelve patients experienced tumor recurrence, and median PFS was 15.0 months. The 2- and 3-year PFS rates were 47.7% and 32.7%, respectively. Five patients died of tumor recurrence, and median OS was not available. The 2- and 3-year OS rates were 74.7% and 64.0%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that female sex, total tumor removal, and primary MPNSTs were significantly associated with a better prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that only total removal was an independent prognostic factor for both PFS and OS.

Conclusions

Malignant PNST within the skull or spinal canal is a rare neoplasm and is seldom caused by benign schwannomas. Radiologically, intracranial or intraspinal MPNST should be differentiated from meningioma, chordoma, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and ear cancer. Total resection whenever possible is necessary for the prolonged survival of patients, especially males.

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Bang-ping Qian, Ji-chen Huang, Yong Qiu, Bin Wang, Yang Yu, Ze-zhang Zhu, Sai-hu Mao and Jun Jiang

OBJECTIVE

To describe the incidence of complications in spinal osteotomy for thoracolumbar kyphosis caused by ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the risk factors for these complications.

METHODS

From April 2000 to July 2017, 342 consecutive AS patients with a mean age (± SD) of 35.4 ± 9.8 years (range 17–71 years) undergoing spinal osteotomy were enrolled. Patients with complications within the 1st postoperative year were identified. Demographic, radiological, and surgical data were compared between patients with and without complications. The complications were classified into intraoperative and postoperative complications.

RESULTS

A total of 310 consecutive pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and 37 multiple Smith-Petersen osteotomy (SPO) procedures were performed in 342 patients. Overall, 47 complications were identified in 47 patients (13.7%), including 31 intraoperative complications and 16 postoperative complications. Patients with complications were older than those without (p = 0.006). A significant difference was observed in preoperative global kyphosis (GK), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and the correction of these radiographic parameters between patients with and without complications (p < 0.05). Two-level PSO (p = 0.022) and an increased number of instrumented vertebrae (p = 0.019) were significantly associated with an increased risk of complications.

CONCLUSIONS

The overall incidence of complications was 13.7%. Age; preoperative GK, LL, and SVA; the correction of GK, LL, and SVA; 2-level PSO; and number of instrumented vertebrae were risk factors. Therefore, the potential risk of extensive surgeries with large correction and long fusion in older AS patients with severe GK should be seriously considered in surgical decision-making.