Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as a cause of hypopituitarism even after mild TBI. Although over the past decade, a growing body of research has detailed neuroendocrine changes induced by TBI, the mechanisms and risk factors responsible for this pituitary dysfunction are still unclear. Around the world, sports—especially combative sports—are very popular. However, sports are not generally considered as a cause of TBI in most epidemiological studies, and the link between sports-related head trauma and hypopituitarism has not been investigated until recently. Thus, there is a paucity of data regarding this important concern. Because of the large number of young sports participants with near-normal life expectancy, the implications of undiagnosed or untreated postconcussion pituitary dysfunction can be dramatic. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of hypopituitarism caused by sports injuries is thus an important issue that concerns both medical staff and sponsors of sports. The aim of this paper was to summarize the best evidence for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and to discuss the current data and recommendations on sports-related head trauma as a cause of hypopituitarism.
Julie Dubourg and Mahmoud Messerer
Julie Dubourg and Mahmoud Messerer
Nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. Intracerebral hemorrhage leads to a high rate of morbidity and mortality. To date, no medical or surgical trials have clearly attested to the benefit of a particular therapy. The aim of this review was to summarize the best evidence for management decision-making in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Mahmoud Messerer and Julie Dubourg
Julie Dubourg, Etienne Javouhey, and Mahmoud Messerer
Julie Dubourg, Moncef Berhouma, Michael Cotton, and Mahmoud Messerer
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) allows evidence to be evaluated on the effectiveness, benefits, and detriments of management options, diagnostic tests, or ways to deliver health care. This process can be achieved in different ways, such as with well-designed randomized controlled trials or by meta-analyses. Several medical subspecialties are increasingly using CER, but CER remains underused by the neurosurgical community. Meta-analysis is a highly accurate method that permits results from multiple well-designed research studies to be quantitatively compared. Meta-analysis can be performed in many settings, such as the evaluation of treatment or of a diagnostic test or prognostic factor. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled treatment trials are well known, but there is a paucity of papers describing the ways to perform a meta-analysis of a diagnostic test. The aim of this paper is to improve neurosurgeons' familiarity with the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy by describing and detailing each stage leading to publication.
Mahmoud Messerer, Julie Dubourg, Ghislaine Saint-Pierre, Emmanuel Jouanneau, and Marc Sindou
The cavernous sinus and surrounding regions—specifically the Meckel cave, posterior sector of the cavernous sinus itself, and the upper part of the petroclival region—are the location of a large variety of lesions that require individual consideration regarding treatment strategy. These regions may be reached for biopsy by a percutaneous needle inserted through the foramen ovale. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous biopsy in a consecutive series of 50 patients referred for surgery between 1991 and 2010.
Seven biopsies (14%) were unproductive and 43 (86%) were productive, among which 28 lesions subsequently underwent histopathological examination during a second (open) surgery. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure, results from surgery were compared with those from the biopsy.
Sensitivity of the percutaneous biopsy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.52–0.98), specificity was 1 (95% CI 0.79–1), and κ coefficient was 0.81.
Because of its valuable diagnostic accuracy, percutaneous biopsy of the cavernous sinus and surrounding regions should be performed in patients with parasellar masses when neuroimaging does not provide sufficient information of a histopathological nature. This procedure would enable patients to obtain the most appropriate therapy, such as resective surgery, corticosteroids, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiosurgery.
Mahmoud Messerer, Julie Dubourg, and Abderrhamane Hamlat
Evidence of improved surgical outcome following endoscopy for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma removal
Personal experience and review of the literature
Mahmoud Messerer, Juan Carlos De battista, Gérald Raverot, Sebouh Kassis, Julie Dubourg, Veronique Lapras, Jacqueline Trouillas, Gilles Perrin, and Emmanuel Jouanneau
Because of their size and lateral extension, total removal of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) remains a challenge and postoperative tumor remnants are frequent. Endoscopy has improved the surgeon's view; however, its superiority in terms of surgical outcome remains undetermined. The authors' aim in this study was to compare the clinical results and morbidity between microscopic and endoscopic techniques in 164 patients with NFPAs.
Tumoral (3D MR imaging), endocrinological, and ophthalmological results and morbidity were compared between 2 groups of 82 patients with newly diagnosed NFPAs surgically treated via either a sublabial microscopic approach (Group B) or a fully endonasal endoscopic technique (Group A).
The groups showed no difference in terms of clinical features, tumor size, or cavernous sinus invasion (p > 0.05). One year postoperatively, the quality of resection was significantly improved in Group A (gross-total removal [GTR]: 74% vs 50% in Group B, p = 0.002) with greater control of lateral extension (Knosp Grade 2: GTR 88.2% vs 47.8% in Group B, p = 0.02; Knosp Grade 3: 67.9% vs 16.7% in Group B, p < 0.001) and suprasellar extension (tumor height 20–30 mm: GTR 76% vs 53% in Group B, p = 0.01). Endocrinological outcome in patients with a partial deficiency in anterior pituitary function preoperatively was significantly better in Group A (improvement 56% vs 25% in Group B, stabilization 22% vs 46%, and aggravation 22% vs 29%; p = 0.01). Among the ophthalmologically symptomatic patients, 100% from Group A improved compared with 93% in Group B (p = 0.35). Lastly, no significant difference was found regarding morbidity. These data were supported by the literature in which the GTR rate is consistently higher for endoscopy compared with microscopy.
In this large series of patients with NFPAs, endoscopy improved the quality of resection and endocrinological outcome. Larger studies focusing on the impact of these promising results on the long-term recurrence of NFPAs are warranted.