Heidi J. Nurmonen, Terhi Huttunen, Jukka Huttunen, Arttu Kurtelius, Satu Kotikoski, Antti Junkkari, Timo Koivisto, Mikael von und zu Fraunberg, Olli-Pekka Kämäräinen, Maarit Lång, Helena Isoniemi, Juha E. Jääskeläinen and Antti E. Lindgren
The authors set out to study whether autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), an established risk factor for intracranial aneurysms (IAs), affects the acute course and long-term outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
The outcomes of 32 ADPKD patients with aSAH between 1980 and 2015 (median age 43 years; 50% women) were compared with 160 matched (age, sex, and year of aSAH) non-ADPKD aSAH patients in the prospectively collected Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm Patient and Family Database.
At 12 months, 75% of the aSAH patients with ADPKD versus 71% of the matched-control aSAH patients without ADPKD had good outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 4 or 5). There was no significant difference in condition at admission. Hypertension had been diagnosed before aSAH in 69% of the ADPKD patients versus 27% of controls (p < 0.001). Multiple IAs were present in 44% of patients in the ADPKD group versus 25% in the control group (p = 0.03). The most common sites of ruptured IAs were the anterior communicating artery (47% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and the middle cerebral artery bifurcation (28% vs 31%), and the median size was 6.0 mm versus 8.0 mm (p = 0.02). During the median follow-up of 11 years, a second aSAH occurred in 3 of 29 (10%) ADPKD patients and in 4 of 131 (3%) controls (p = 0.11). A fatal second aSAH due to a confirmed de novo aneurysm occurred in 2 (6%) of the ADPKD patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.027).
The outcomes of ADPKD patients with aSAH did not differ significantly from those of matched non-ADPKD aSAH patients. ADPKD patients had an increased risk of second aSAH from a de novo aneurysm, warranting long-term angiographic follow-up.
Tommi K. Korhonen, Sami Tetri, Jukka Huttunen, Antti Lindgren, Jaakko M. Piitulainen, Willy Serlo, Pekka K. Vallittu and Jussi P. Posti
Craniectomy is a common neurosurgical procedure that reduces intracranial pressure, but survival necessitates cranioplasty at a later stage, after recovery from the primary insult. Complications such as infection and resorption of the autologous bone flap are common. The risk factors for complications and subsequent bone flap removal are unclear. The aim of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the factors affecting the outcome of primary autologous cranioplasty, with special emphasis on bone flap resorption.
The authors identified all patients who underwent primary autologous cranioplasty at 3 tertiary-level university hospitals between 2002 and 2015. Patients underwent follow-up until bone flap removal, death, or December 31, 2015.
The cohort comprised 207 patients with a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years (SD 2.7 years). The overall complication rate was 39.6% (82/207), the bone flap removal rate was 19.3% (40/207), and 11 patients (5.3%) died during the follow-up period. Smoking (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.50–6.95; p = 0.003) and age younger than 45 years (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.07–4.89; p = 0.032) were found to independently predict subsequent autograft removal, while age younger than 30 years was found to independently predict clinically relevant bone flap resorption (OR 4.59, 95% CI 1.15–18.34; p = 0.03). The interval between craniectomy and cranioplasty was not found to predict either bone flap removal or resorption.
In this large, multicenter cohort of patients with autologous cranioplasty, smoking and younger age predicted complications leading to bone flap removal. Very young age predicted bone flap resorption. The authors recommend that physicians extensively inform their patients of the pronounced risks of smoking before cranioplasty.