Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 24 items for

  • Author or Editor: Juha Hernesniemi x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Markku Kaste, Juha Hernesniemi, Hannu Somer, Matti Hillbom and Aarne Konttinen

✓ Brain-type creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme (CK-BB) was detected in the serum in 13 out of 26 patients with acute brain injury (50%). The peak of CK-BB activity ranged from 5 to 188 U/liter, constituting, on average, 10.5% of the total CK activity. The highest activities were seen in patients with gunshot wounds. High CK-BB activity was associated with poor prognosis, but minimal CK-BB elevations did not have prognostic significance.

Heart-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) was detected in the serum in 17 out of 26 patients (65%). The peak activity ranged from 5 to 115 U/liter, constituting, on average, 6.6% of total CK activity. Electrocardiograms taken from 20 patients revealed transient T-wave inversions in the precordial leads in four patients; three of them also showed serum CK-MB activity. Subendocardial hemorrhage was detected at autopsy in three of the five CK-MB-positive patients, but in none of the four CK-MB-negative cases. Present findings suggest that acute brain injury may secondarily cause myocardial damage.

Restricted access

Matti Vapalahti, Bengt Ljunggren, Hans Säveland, Juha Hernesniemi, Lennart Brandt and Antti Tapaninaho

✓ The Kuopio University Clinic is the neurosurgical referral center for a population of 930,000 inhabitants in central Finland while the Lund University Clinic is the neurosurgical referral center for a population of 1.46 million inhabitants in southern Sweden. The incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is approximately 19/100,000/year in central Finland and approximately five/100,000/year in southern Sweden. During the calendar year 1982, 69 patients with a ruptured supratentorial aneurysm were admitted in Lund, and 71 such patients were admitted in Kuopio. Thirty-nine patients in neurological Grades I to III (according to Hunt and Hess) underwent early aneurysm operation in Lund, and 46 such patients were operated on within a week after SAH in Kuopio. In the combined series of 85 Grade I to III patients with aneurysm operation within a week after rupture, 78% made a good recovery; the morbidity rate was 14%, and the mortality rate was 8%.

Restricted access

Sydney J. Peerless, Juha A. Hernesniemi, Frederick B. Gutman and Charles G. Drake

✓ The authors present a series of 1767 patients with aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar circulation, most of whom were operated on 14 days or more following their last subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Since 1970, 206 patients with vertebrobasilar aneurysms have been surgically treated within 7 days after their last SAH (day of SAH = Day 0). Of patients with a good preoperative grade (Botterell Grade 1 or 2), a good or excellent outcome was obtained in 80% during the first postsurgical month, irrespective of the timing of surgery. All except one of the Grade 5 patients died, and 70% of the Grade 4 patients were significantly disabled or dead. The overall operative mortality rate was the same whether surgery took place in the 1st week after SAH or was delayed. The frequency of rupture of the aneurysm during early surgery was not higher than during late surgery. Thirteen percent of patients developed a delayed ischemic neurological deficit as a consequence of reactive arterial narrowing (vasospasm). The authors recommend early surgery for patients with a good preoperative grade, whose aneurysm does not present a particular technical difficulty because of size, configuration, or location, and occasionally in patients whose lives appear to be in jeopardy because of recurrent hemorrhage.

Restricted access
Restricted access
Restricted access
Restricted access

Jari Siironen, Seppo Juvela, Joona Varis, Matti Porras, Kristiina Poussa, Sorella Ilveskero, Juha Hernesniemi and Riitta Lassila

Object. From the moment an intracranial aneurysm ruptures, cerebral blood flow is impaired, and this impairment mainly determines the outcome in patients who survive after the initial bleeding. The exact mechanism of impairment is unknown, but activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis correlate with clinical condition and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to determine whether enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, which is a well-known anticoagulating agent, has any effect on the outcome of aneurysmal SAH postoperatively.

Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, single-center clinical trial, 170 patients (85 per group) with aneurysmal SAH were randomly assigned to receive either enoxaparin (40 mg subcutaneously once daily) or a placebo, starting within 24 hours after occlusion of the aneurysm and continuing for 10 days. Analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. Outcome was assessed at 3 months on both the Glasgow Outcome and modified Rankin Scales. Patients were eligible for the study if surgery was performed within 48 hours post-SAH, and no intracerebral hemorrhage was larger than 20 mm in diameter on the first postoperative computerized tomography scan.

At 3 months, there were no significant differences in outcome by treatment group. Of the 170 patients, 11 (6%) died, and only 95 (56%) had a good outcome. Principal causes of unfavorable outcome were poor initial condition, delayed cerebral ischemia, and surgical complications. There were four patients with additional intracranial bleeding in the group receiving enoxaparin. The bleeding was not necessarily associated with the treatment itself, nor did it require treatment, and there were no such patients in the placebo group.

Conclusions. Enoxaparin seemed to have no effect on the outcome of aneurysmal SAH in patients who had already received routine nimodipine and who had received triple-H therapy when needed. Routine use of low-molecular-weight heparin should be avoided during the early postoperative period in patients with SAH, because this agent seems to increase intracranial bleeding complications slightly, with no beneficial effect on neurological outcome.

Restricted access

Jari Siironen, Matti Porras, Joona Varis, Kristiina Poussa, Juha Hernesniemi and Seppo Juvela

Object

Identifying ischemic lesions after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is important because the appearance of these lesions on follow-up imaging correlates with a poor outcome. The effect of ischemic lesions seen on computed tomography (CT) scans during the first days of treatment remains unknown, however.

Methods

In 156 patients with SAH, clinical course and outcome, as well as the appearance of ischemic lesions on serial CT scans, were prospectively monitored for 3 months. At 3 months after SAH, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to detect permanent lesions that had not been visible on CT.

Results

Of the 53 patients with no lesions on any of the follow-up CT scans, four (8%) had a poor outcome. Of the 52 patients with a new hypodense lesion on the first postoperative day CT, 23 (44%) had a poor outcome. Among the remaining 51 patients with a lesion appearing later than the first postoperative morning, 10 (20%) had a poor outcome (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient age; clinical condition on admission; amounts of subarachnoid, intracerebral, and intraventricular blood; and plasma glucose and D-dimer levels, a hypodense lesion on CT on the first postoperative morning was an independent predictor of poor outcome after SAH (odds ratio 7.27, 95% confidence interval 1.54–34.37, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

A new hypodense lesion on early postoperative CT seems to be an independent risk factor for poor outcome after SAH, and this early lesion development may be more detrimental to clinical outcome than a later lesion occurrence.

Restricted access

Juri Kivelev, Christian N. Ramsey, Reza Dashti, Matti Porras, Olli Tyyninen and Juha Hernesniemi

✓Among cavernomas of the central nervous system, spinal ones are rare. The true incidence of spinal cavernomas is unclear, but with widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging the number of cases is increasing. Furthermore, cav-ernomas represent only 5–12% of all vascular anomalies of the spinal cord, with a mere 3% reported to be intradural and intramedullary in location. Cervical spine intradural extramedullary cavernomas are very seldom seen, and only 4 cases have been reported in world literature previously. In this report, a unique case of an intradural extramedullary spinal cavernoma was surgically treated in a patient who presented only with an intramedullary hemorrhage.

Restricted access

Torstein R. Meling, Angelika Sorteberg, Søren J. Bakke, Haldor Slettebø, Juha Hernesniemi and Wilhelm Sorteberg

Object

The object of this study was to evaluate cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) trunk.

Methods

The authors performed a single-center, retrospective study. Data analyzed were patient age, sex, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, time from SAH to hospitalization, aneurysm size and location, collateral capacity of the circle of Willis, time from hospitalization to aneurysm repair, type of aneurysm repair, complications, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at follow-up.

Results

A total of 211 patients suffered SAH from ICA aneurysms. Of these, 14 patients (6.6%) had ICA trunk BBAs; 6 men and 8 women. The median age was 47.8 years (range 29.9–67.7 years). The Hunt and Hess grade was IV or V in 7 cases, and SAH was Fisher Grade 3 + 4 in 6. All aneurysms were small (< 1 cm), without relation to vessel bifurcations, and usually located anteromedially on the ICA trunk. Three patients were treated with coil placement and 11 with clip placement. Of the 7 patients in whom the ICA was preserved, only 1 had poor outcome (GOS Score 2). In contrast, cerebral infarcts developed in all patients treated with ICA sacrifice, directly postoperatively in 2 and after delay in 5. Six patients died, 1 survived in poor condition (GOS Score 3; p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Internal carotid BBAs are rare, small, and difficult to treat endovascularly, with only 2 of 14 patients successfully treated with coil placement. The BBAs rupture easily during surgery (ruptured in 6 of 11 surgical cases). Intraoperative aneurysm rupture invariably led to ICA trap ligation. Sacrifice of the ICA within 48 hours of an SAH led to very poor outcome, even in patients with adequate collateral capacity on preoperative angiograms, probably because of vasospasm-induced compromise of the cerebral collaterals.