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Thomas J. Buell, James H. Nguyen, Marcus D. Mazur, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Juanita Garces, Davis G. Taylor, Chun-Po Yen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Justin S. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Fixed sagittal spinal malalignment is a common problem in adult spinal deformity (ASD). Various three-column osteotomy techniques, including the extended pedicle subtraction osteotomy (ePSO), may correct global and regional malalignment in this patient population. In contrast to the number of reports on traditional PSO (Schwab grade 3 osteotomy), there is limited literature on the outcomes of ePSO (Schwab grade 4 osteotomy) in ASD surgery. The objective of this retrospective study was to provide focused investigation of radiographic outcomes and complications of single-level lumbar ePSO for ASD patients with fixed sagittal malalignment.

METHODS

Consecutive ASD patients in whom sagittal malalignment had been treated with single-level lumbar ePSO at the authors’ institution between 2010 and 2015 were analyzed, and those with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included in the study. Radiographic analyses included assessments of segmental lordosis through the ePSO site (sagittal Cobb angle measured from the superior endplate of the vertebra above and inferior endplate of the vertebra below the ePSO), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence and LL mismatch, thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) on standing long-cassette radiographs. Complications were analyzed for the entire group.

RESULTS

Among 71 potentially eligible patients, 55 (77%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up and were included in the study. Overall, the average postoperative increases in ePSO segmental lordosis and overall LL were 41° ± 14° (range 7°–69°, p < 0.001) and 38° ± 11° (range 9°–58°, p < 0.001), respectively. The average SVA improvement was 13 ± 7 cm (range of correction: −33.6 to 3.4 cm, p < 0.001). These measurements were maintained when comparing early postoperative to last follow-up values, respectively (mean follow-up 52 months, range 26–97 months): ePSO segmental lordosis, 34° vs 33°, p = 0.270; LL, 47.3° vs 46.7°, p = 0.339; and SVA, 4 vs 5 cm, p = 0.330. Rod fracture (RF) at the ePSO site occurred in 18.2% (10/55) of patients, and pseudarthrosis (PA) at the ePSO site was confirmed by CT imaging or during rod revision surgery in 14.5% (8/55) of patients. Accessory supplemental rods across the ePSO site, a more recently employed technique, significantly reduced the occurrence of RF or PA on univariate (p = 0.004) and multivariable (OR 0.062, 95% CI 0.007–0.553, p = 0.013) analyses; this effect approached statistical significance on Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.053, log-rank test). Interbody cage placement at the ePSO site resulted in greater ePSO segmental lordosis correction (45° vs 35°, p = 0.007) without significant change in RF or PA (p = 0.304). Transient and persistent motor deficits occurred in 14.5% (8/55) and 1.8% (1/55) of patients, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Extended PSO is an effective technique to correct fixed sagittal malalignment for ASD. In comparison to traditional PSO techniques, ePSO may allow greater focal correction with comparable complication rates, especially with interbody cage placement at the ePSO site and the use of accessory supplemental rods.

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Joshua A. Hanna, Tyler Scullen, Lora Kahn, Mansour Mathkour, Edna E. Gouveia, Juanita Garces, Leah M. Evans, Georgia Lea, David J. Houghton, Erin Biro, Cuong J. Bui, Olawale A. Sulaiman and Roger D. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the procedure of choice for Parkinson’s disease (PD). It has been used in PD patients younger than 70 years because of better perceived intra- and postoperative outcomes than in patients 70 years or older. However, previous studies with limited follow-up have demonstrated benefits associated with the treatment of elderly patients. This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcomes in elderly PD patients treated with DBS in comparison with a younger population.

METHODS

PD patients treated with DBS at the authors’ institution from 2008 to 2014 were divided into 2 groups: 1) elderly patients, defined as having an age at surgery ≥ 70 years, and 2) young patients, defined as those < 70 years at surgery. Functional and medical treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS III), levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD), number of daily doses, and number of anti-PD medications. Study outcomes were compared using univariate analyses, 1-sample paired t-tests, and 2-sample t-tests.

RESULTS

A total of 151 patients were studied, of whom 24.5% were ≥ 70 years. The most common preoperative Hoehn and Yahr stages for both groups were 2 and 3. On average, elderly patients had more comorbidities at the time of surgery than their younger counterparts (1 vs 0, p = 0.0001) as well as a higher average LEDD (891 mg vs 665 mg, p = 0.008). Both groups experienced significant decreases in LEDD following surgery (elderly 331.38 mg, p = 0.0001; and young 108.6 mg, p = 0.0439), with a more significant decrease seen in elderly patients (young 108.6 mg vs elderly 331.38 mg, p = 0.0153). Elderly patients also experienced more significant reductions in daily doses (young 0.65 vs elderly 3.567, p = 0.0344). Both groups experienced significant improvements in motor function determined by reductions in UPDRS III scores (elderly 16.29 vs young 12.85, p < 0.0001); however, reductions in motor score between groups were not significant. Improvement in motor function was present for a mean follow-up of 3.383 years postsurgery for the young group and 3.51 years for the elderly group. The average follow-up was 40.6 months in the young group and 42.2 months in the elderly group.

CONCLUSIONS

This study found long-term improvements in motor function and medication requirements in both elderly and young PD patients treated with DBS. These outcomes suggest that DBS can be successfully used in PD patients ≥ 70 years. Further studies will expand on these findings.