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Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, and Sun Ho Kim

OBJECTIVE

Endonasal surgery of the skull base requires watertight reconstruction of the skull base that can seal the dural defect to prevent postoperative CSF rhinorrhea and consequent intracranial complications. Although the incidence of CSF leakage has decreased significantly since the introduction in 2006 of the vascularized nasoseptal flap (the Hadad-Bassagasteguy flap), reconstruction of extensive skull base dural defects remains challenging. The authors describe a new, modified vascularized nasoseptal flap for reconstruction of extensive skull base dural defects.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted on 39 cases from 2010 to 2017 that involved reconstruction of the skull base with an endonasal vascularized flap. Extended nasoseptal flaps were generated by adding the nasal floor and inferior meatus mucosa, inferior turbinate mucosa, or entire lateral nasal wall mucosa. The authors specifically highlight the surgical techniques for flap design and harvesting of these various modifications of the vascularized nasoseptal flap.

RESULTS

Thirty-nine endonasal vascularized flaps were used to reconstruct skull base defects in 37 patients with nonsurgical or postoperative CSF rhinorrhea. Of the 39 procedures, extended nasoseptal flaps were used in 5 cases (13%). These included 2 extended nasoseptal flaps including the inferior turbinate mucosa and 3 extended nasoseptal flaps including the entire lateral nasal wall mucosa. These 5 extended nasoseptal flaps were used in patients who had nonsurgical CSF rhinorrhea due to extensive skull base destruction by invasive pituitary tumors. All flaps healed completely and sealed off the CSF leaks. Olfactory function slightly decreased in the 3 patients with extended nasoseptal flaps including the entire lateral nasal wall mucosa. One patient experienced nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which was treated by dacryocystorhinostomy. The authors encountered no wound complication in this series, while crusting at the donor site required daily nasal toilette and frequent debridement until the completion of mucosalization, which usually takes 8 to 12 weeks after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Extended nasoseptal flaps are a reliable and versatile option that can be used to reconstruct extensive skull base dural defects resulting from destruction by large invasive tumors or complex endoscopic endonasal surgery. An extended nasoseptal flap that includes the entire lateral nasal wall mucosa (360° flap) is the largest endonasal vascularized flap reported to date and may be an alternative for the reconstruction of extensive skull base defects while avoiding the need for additional external approaches.

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Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, and Sun Ho Kim

OBJECTIVE

Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is considered a most effective treatment for pituitary tumors with huge suprasellar extension. However, the chance of developing CSF leakage is relatively high, because tearing of the arachnoid membrane is common and there could be multiple tear points during the dissection of suprasellar tumors from the overlying arachnoid membrane. If there are multiple leaking points in the arachnoid membrane packing methods such as using fat or multilayered fascia graft may not be sufficient to seal off the leaking points. Moreover, the packing material may not provide sufficient tamponade to stop bleeding, and thus generates postoperative hematoma formation in the tumor resection cavity. To prevent these complications, the authors have developed a new technique for remodeling the redundant arachnoid pouch (the so-called snare technique) to reconstruct the diaphragm, seal off the CSF leak points completely, and reduce the dead space in the tumor resection cavity.

METHODS

In 9 patients with huge macroadenomas (> 2.5 cm in diameter) with suprasellar extension, the snare technique was used to remodel the arachnoid pouch after tumor removal via standard TSS between July 2009 and August 2014. Complications were investigated, including postoperative CSF rhinorrhea, postoperative hematoma collection, and visual compromise.

RESULTS

During the resection of the tumor, CSF leakage was encountered in 8 cases, all of which were sealed off using the snare technique. In 1 case without intraoperative CSF leakage, the snare technique was also applied after intentional puncturing of the arachnoid membrane to reduce the volume and tension of the arachnoid pouch. None of the 9 patients experienced postoperative CSF rhinorrhea. Lumbar CSF drainage was not required in any case. Magnetic resonance imaging studies performed 24 hours after surgery revealed a remarkable reduction in the height of the diaphragm in all cases. Visual deficits improved in all patients immediately after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Remodeling of the arachnoid pouch using the snare technique is simple and effective for completely sealing off the CSF leak point and preventing hematoma collection in the tumor resection cavity after TSS for huge pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension.

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Eui Hyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Ji Woong Oh, Ju-Seong Kim, Jin Sook Yoon, Ju Hyung Moon, Seok-Gu Kang, Jong Hee Chang, and Tae Hoon Roh

OBJECTIVE

The insula is a complex anatomical structure. Accessing tumors in the insula remains a challenge due to its anatomical complexity and the high chance of morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) to the insular region based on a cadaveric study.

METHODS

One cadaveric head was used to study the anatomy of the insula and surrounding vessels. Then, anatomical dissection was performed in 4 human cadaveric heads using a dedicated endoscopic system with the aid of neuronavigation guidance. To assess the extent of resection, CT scanning was performed before and after dissection. The insular region was directly exposed by a classic transcranial approach to check the extent of resection from the side with a classic transcranial approach.

RESULTS

The entire procedure consisted of two phases: an extradural orbital phase and an intradural sylvian phase. After eyelid incision, the sphenoid bone and orbital roof were extensively drilled out with exposure of the frontal and temporal dural layers. After making a dural window, the anterior ramus of the sylvian fissure was opened and dissected. The M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was identified and traced posterolaterally. A small corticectomy was performed on the posterior orbital gyrus. Through the window between the lateral lenticulostriate arteries and M2, the cortex and medulla of the insula were resected in an anteroposterior direction without violation of the M2 segment of the MCA or its major branches. When confirmed by pterional craniotomy, the sylvian fissure and the MCA were found to be anatomically preserved. After validation of the feasibility and safety based on a cadaveric study, the ETOA was successfully performed in a patient with a high-grade glioma (WHO grade III) in the right insula.

CONCLUSIONS

The transorbital route can be considered a potential option to access tumors located in the insula. Using an ETOA, the MCA and its major branches were identified and preserved while removal was performed along the long axis of the insula. In particular, lesions in the anterior part of the insula are most benefited by this approach. Because this approach was implemented in only one patient, additional discussion and further verification is required.

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Tae Hoon Roh, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Kyoung Su Sung, Hun Ho Park, Se Hoon Kim, Eui Hyun Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Chang-Ok Suh, and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

Following resection of glioblastoma (GBM), microscopic remnants of the GBM tumor remaining in nearby tissue cause tumor recurrence more often than for other types of tumors, even after gross-total resection (GTR). Although surgical oncologists traditionally resect some of the surrounding normal tissue, whether further removal of nearby tissue may improve survival in GBM patients is unknown. In this single-center retrospective study, the authors assessed whether lobectomy confers a survival benefit over GTR without lobectomy when treating GBMs in the noneloquent area.

METHODS

The authors selected 40 patients who had undergone GTR of a histopathologically diagnosed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–wild type GBM in the right frontal or temporal lobe and divided the patients into 2 groups according to whether GTR of the tumor involved lobectomy, defined as a supratotal resection (SupTR group, n = 20) or did not (GTR group, n = 20). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scores were compared between groups (p ≤ 0.05 for statistically significant differences).

RESULTS

The median postoperative PFS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 11.5 months (95% CI 8.8–14.2) and SupTR group, 30.7 months (95% CI 4.3–57.1; p = 0.007). The median postoperative OS times for each group were as follows: GTR group, 18.7 months (95% CI 14.3–23.1) and SupTR group, 44.1 months (95% CI 25.1–63.1; p = 0.040). The mean postoperative KPS scores (GTR, 76.5; SupTR, 77.5; p = 0.904) were not significantly different. In multivariate analysis, survival for the SupTR group was significantly longer than that for the GTR group in terms of both PFS (HR 0.230; 95% CI 0.090–0.583; p = 0.002) and OS (HR 0.247; 95% CI 0.086–0.704; p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

In cases of completely resectable, noneloquent-area GBMs, SupTR provides superior PFS and OS without negatively impacting patient performance.

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*Jaejoon Lim, Kyoung Su Sung, Woohyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Seonah Choi, Seung Hoon Lim, Tae Hoon Roh, Chang-Ki Hong, and Ju Hyung Moon

OBJECTIVE

The endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) has been developed, permitting a new surgical corridor. Due to the vertical limitation of the ETOA, some lesions of the anterior cranial fossa are difficult to access. The ETOA with superior-lateral orbital rim (SLOR) osteotomy can achieve surgical freedom of vertical as well as horizontal movement. The purpose of this study was to confirm the feasibility of the ETOA with SLOR osteotomy.

METHODS

Anatomical dissections were performed in 5 cadaveric heads with a neuroendoscope and neuronavigation system. ETOA with SLOR osteotomy was performed on one side of the head, and ETOA with lateral orbital rim (LOR) osteotomy was performed on the other side. After analysis of the results of the cadaveric study, the ETOA with SLOR osteotomy was applied in 6 clinical cases.

RESULTS

The horizontal and vertical movement range through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy (43.8° ± 7.49° and 36.1° ± 3.32°, respectively) was improved over ETOA with LOR osteotomy (31.8° ± 5.49° and 23.3° ± 1.34°, respectively) (p < 0.01). Surgical freedom through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy (6025.1 ± 220.1 mm3) was increased relative to ETOA with LOR osteotomy (4191.3 ± 57.2 mm3) (p < 0.01); these values are expressed as the mean ± SD. Access levels of ETOA with SLOR osteotomy were comfortable, including anterior skull base lesion and superior orbital area. The view range of the endoscope for anterior skull base lesions was increased through ETOA with SLOR osteotomy. After SLOR osteotomy, the space for moving surgical instruments and the endoscope was widened. Anterior clinoidectomy could be achieved successfully using ETOA with SLOR osteotomy.

The authors performed ETOA with SLOR osteotomy in 6 cases of brain tumor. In all 6 cases, complete removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished. In the 3 cases of anterior clinoidal meningioma, anterior clinoidectomy was performed easily and safely, and manipulation of the extended dural margin and origin dura mater was possible. There was no complication related to this approach.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors evaluated the clinical feasibility of ETOA with SLOR osteotomy based on a cadaveric study. ETOA with SLOR osteotomy could be applied to more diverse disease groups that do not permit conventional ETOA or to cases in which surgical application is challenging. ETOA with SLOR osteotomy might serve as an opportunity to broaden the indication for the ETOA.

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Ji Woong Oh, Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang, Yong Gou Park, Sun Ho Kim, and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

This study investigated long-term follow-up data on the combined pituitary function test (CPFT) in patients who had undergone transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) to determine the clinical parameters indicative of hypopituitarism following postoperative Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).

METHODS

Between 2001 and 2015, a total of 971 NFPA patients underwent TSS, and 76 of them (7.8%) underwent postoperative GKS. All 76 patients were evaluated with a CPFT before and after GKS. The hormonal states were analyzed based on the following parameters: relevant factors before GKS (age, sex, extent of resection, pre-GKS hormonal states, time interval between TSS and GKS), GKS-related factors (tumor volume; radiation dose to tumor, pituitary stalk, and normal gland; distance between tumor and stalk), and clinical outcomes (tumor control rate, changes in hormonal states, need for hormone-related medication due to hormonal changes).

RESULTS

Of the 971 NFPA patients, 797 had gross-total resection (GTR) and 174 had subtotal resection (STR). Twenty-five GTR patients (3.1%) and 51 STR patients (29.3%) underwent GKS. The average follow-up period after GKS was 53.5 ± 35.5 months, and the tumor control rate was 96%. Of the 76 patients who underwent GKS, 23 were excluded due to pre-GKS panhypopituitarism (22) or loss to follow-up (1). Hypopituitarism developed in 13 (24.5%) of the remaining 53 patients after GKS. A higher incidence of post-GKS hypopituitarism occurred in the patients with normal pre-GKS hormonal states (41.7%, 10/24) than in the patients with abnormal pre-GKS hormonal states (10.3%, 3/29; p = 0.024). Target tumor volume (4.7 ± 3.9 cm3), distance between tumor and pituitary stalk (2.0 ± 2.2 mm), stalk dose (cutoffs: mean dose 7.56 Gy, maximal dose 12.3 Gy), and normal gland dose (cutoffs: maximal dose 13.9 Gy, minimal dose 5.25 Gy) were factors predictive of post-GKS hypopituitarism (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

This study analyzed the long-term follow-up CPFT data on hormonal changes in NFPA patients who underwent GKS after TSS. The authors propose a cutoff value for the radiation dose to the pituitary stalk and normal gland for the prevention of post-GKS hypopituitarism.

Free access

Ju Hyung Moon, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Kyu Sung Lee, Yong Gou Park, and Jong Hee Chang

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor control rate and functional outcomes after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) among patients with a facial nerve schwannoma.

Methods

The authors reviewed the radiological data and clinical records for 14 patients who had consecutively undergone GKS for a facial nerve schwannoma. Before GKS, 12 patients had facial palsy, 7 patients had hearing disturbance, and 5 patients had undergone partial or subtotal tumor resection. The mean and median tumor volumes were 3707 mm3 and 3000 mm3, respectively (range 117–10,100 mm3). The mean tumor margin dose was 13.2 Gy (range 12–15 Gy), and the mean maximum tumor dose was 26.4 Gy (range 24–30 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 80.7 months (range 2–170 months).

Results

Control of tumor growth was achieved in all 12 (100%) patients who were followed up for longer than 2 years. After GKS, facial nerve function improved in 2 patients, remained unchanged in 9 patients, and worsened in 3 patients. All patients who had had serviceable hearing at the preliminary examination maintained their hearing at a useful level after GKS. Other than mild tinnitus reported by 3 patients, no other major complications developed.

Conclusions

GKS for facial nerve schwannomas resulted in excellent tumor control rates and functional outcomes. GKS might be a good primary treatment option for patients with a small- to medium-sized facial nerve schwannoma when facial nerve function and hearing are relatively preserved.

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Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Se Hoon Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee, Won Seok Chang, and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a new combined entity for which a soft-tissue–type grading system, ranging from grades I to III, has been introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. The results of the treatment of this new disease entity require evaluation.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reevaluated the pathological findings and medical records of patients with SFT/HPC. This study included 60 patients (27 men and 33 women, median age 42.5 years, range 13–69 years) treated at Severance Hospital between February 1981 and February 2016. Four, 40, and 16 patients were categorized as having SFT/HPC grades I, II, and III, respectively. Among these patients, SFTs diagnosed in 7 patients were regraded as grades I (n = 4), II (n = 2), and III (n = 1).

RESULTS

The median overall survival (OS) was 73.2 months (range 1.4–275.7 months), and the progression-free survival (PFS) after the first operation was 53.8 months (range 1.4–217.7 months). Six patients (10%) showed extracranial metastasis during a median period of 103.7 months (range 31.9–182.3 months). Nineteen patients (31.7%) presented with tumor recurrences. The patients in the grade III group had shorter PFS and OS, as well as a shorter period to extracranial metastasis, compared with patients in the grade II group. In the grade II group, patients who underwent gross-total resection showed longer PFS than those who underwent subtotal resection; however, there was no difference in OS. Patients who underwent adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after surgery had longer PFS compared with that of patients who did not undergo adjuvant RT.

CONCLUSIONS

The SFT/HPC grade I group showed a relatively benign course compared with those of the other groups. The grade III group presented a course with a more aggressive nature than that of the grade II group. In the grade II group, the extent of resection and adjuvant RT was significantly associated with longer PFS. The long-term follow-up and periodic systemic evaluation are mandatory to detect systemic metastasis.

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Soo Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Minkyun Na, Jihwan Yoo, Woohyun Kim, In-Ho Jung, Kyung Won Kim, Ju Hyung Moon, Daham Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim, and Eui Hyun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare type of pituitary adenoma; thus, little is known about TSHomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of TSHomas based on a single-center experience. The authors also searched for reliable preoperative and early postoperative factors that could predict long-term endocrinological remission.

METHODS

The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and surgical and endocrinological outcomes of 31 consecutive cases of TSHomas that were surgically treated between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors were evaluated for their ability to predict long-term remission by comparing remission and nonremission groups. TSH and free thyroxine levels were measured at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery to determine whether they could predict long-term remission.

RESULTS

Gross-total removal of tumor was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%), and 26 patients (83.9%) achieved endocrinological remission by surgery alone based on long-term endocrinological follow-up (median 50 months, range 32–81 months). The majority of the tumors were solid (21/31, 67.7%), and en bloc resection was possible in 16 patients (51.6%). Larger tumor size and tumor invasion into cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were strong predictors of lower rates of endocrinological remission. Immediate postoperative TSH level at 12 hours after surgery was the strongest predictor, with a 0.62 μIU/mL cutoff. Postoperative complications included CSF rhinorrhea in one patient and epistaxis in another patient, who underwent additional surgical treatment for the complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor size and extent are major prognostic factors for both extent of resection and endocrinological remission. The consistency of TSHomas was more likely to be solid, which makes extracapsular dissection more feasible. Long-term remission of TSHomas could be predicted even during the early postoperative period.

Free access

Soo Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Minkyun Na, Jihwan Yoo, Woohyun Kim, In-Ho Jung, Kyung Won Kim, Ju Hyung Moon, Daham Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim, and Eui Hyun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare type of pituitary adenoma; thus, little is known about TSHomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of TSHomas based on a single-center experience. The authors also searched for reliable preoperative and early postoperative factors that could predict long-term endocrinological remission.

METHODS

The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and surgical and endocrinological outcomes of 31 consecutive cases of TSHomas that were surgically treated between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors were evaluated for their ability to predict long-term remission by comparing remission and nonremission groups. TSH and free thyroxine levels were measured at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery to determine whether they could predict long-term remission.

RESULTS

Gross-total removal of tumor was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%), and 26 patients (83.9%) achieved endocrinological remission by surgery alone based on long-term endocrinological follow-up (median 50 months, range 32–81 months). The majority of the tumors were solid (21/31, 67.7%), and en bloc resection was possible in 16 patients (51.6%). Larger tumor size and tumor invasion into cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were strong predictors of lower rates of endocrinological remission. Immediate postoperative TSH level at 12 hours after surgery was the strongest predictor, with a 0.62 μIU/mL cutoff. Postoperative complications included CSF rhinorrhea in one patient and epistaxis in another patient, who underwent additional surgical treatment for the complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor size and extent are major prognostic factors for both extent of resection and endocrinological remission. The consistency of TSHomas was more likely to be solid, which makes extracapsular dissection more feasible. Long-term remission of TSHomas could be predicted even during the early postoperative period.