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Yaron A. Moshel, Joshua D.S. Marcus, Erik C. Parker and Patrick J. Kelly

Object

The object of this study was to identify characteristic preoperative angiographic and MR imaging features of safely resectable insular gliomas and describe the surgical techniques and postoperative clinical outcomes.

Methods

Thirty-eight patients with insular gliomas underwent transsylvian resection between 1995 and 2007. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, pathological findings, and neurological outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative MR imaging–defined tumor volumes were superimposed onto the preoperative stereotactic cerebral angiograms to determine whether the insular tumor was confined lateral to (Group I) or extended medially around (Group II) the lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs).

Results

Twenty-five patients (66%) had tumors situated lateral to the LSAs and 13 (34%) had tumors encasing the LSAs. Insular gliomas situated lateral to the LSAs led to significant medial displacement of these vessels (161 ± 39%). In 20 (80%) of these 25 cases the boundaries between tumor and brain parenchyma were well demarcated on preoperative T2-weighted MR images. In contrast, there was less displacement of the LSAs (130 ± 14%) in patients with insular gliomas extending around the LSAs on angiography. In 11 (85%) of these 13 cases, the tumor boundaries were diffuse on T2-weighted MR images. Postoperative hemiparesis or worsening of a preexisting hemiparesis, secondary to LSA compromise, occurred in 5 patients, all of whom had tumor volumes that extended medial to the LSAs. Gross-total or near-total resection was achieved more frequently in cases in which the insular glioma remained lateral to the LSAs (84 vs 54%).

Conclusions

Insular gliomas with an MR imaging–defined tumor volume located lateral to the LSAs on stereotactic angiography displace the LSAs medially by expanding the insula, have well-demarcated tumor boundaries on MR images, and can be completely resected with minimal neurological morbidity. In contrast, insular tumors that appear to surround the LSAs do not displace these vessels medially, are poorly demarcated from normal brain parenchyma on MR images, and are associated with higher rates of neurological morbidity if aggressive resection is pursued. Preoperative identification of these anatomical growth patterns can be of value in planning resection.

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Samir Sarda, Wei Dong and Joshua J. Chern

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Brian L. Hoh, Yan Gong, Caitrin W. McDonough, Michael F. Waters, Adrienne J. Royster, Tiffany O. Sheehan, Ben Burkley, Taimour Y. Langaee, J Mocco, Scott L. Zuckerman, Nishit Mummareddy, Marcus L. Stephens II, Christie Ingram, Christian M. Shaffer, Joshua C. Denny, Murray H. Brilliant, Terrie E. Kitchner, James G. Linneman, Dan M. Roden and Julie A. Johnson

OBJECT

Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has a high risk of recurrent stroke. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and CES1 are associated with adverse outcomes in cardiovascular patients, but have not been studied in ICAD. The authors studied CYP2C19 and CES1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in symptomatic ICAD patients.

METHODS

Genotype testing for CYP2C19*2, *3, *8, *17 and CES1 G143E was performed on 188 adult symptomatic ICAD patients from 3 medical centers who were medically managed with clopidogrel and aspirin. Testing was performed prospectively at 1 center, and retrospectively from a DNA sample biorepository at 2 centers. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the association of these SNPs with the primary endpoint, which was a composite of transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 12 months.

RESULTS

The primary endpoint occurred in 14.9% of the 188 cases. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of the CYP2C19 loss of function (LOF) alleles *2, *3, and *8 in the medically managed patients was associated with lower odds of primary endpoint compared with wild-type homozygotes (odds ratio [OR] 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.62, p = 0.0101). Cox regression analysis demonstrated the CYP2C19 LOF carriers had a lower risk for the primary endpoint, with hazard ratio (HR) of 0.27 (95% CI 0.08–0.95), p = 0.041. A sensitivity analysis of a secondary composite endpoint of TIA, stroke, or death demonstrated a significant trend in multiple logistic regression analysis of CYP2C19 variants, with lower odds of secondary endpoint in patients carrying at least 1 LOF allele (*2, *3, *8) than in wild-type homozygotes (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06–1.16, p = 0.078). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the carriers of CYP2C19 LOF alleles had a lower risk forthe secondary composite endpoint (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05–1.04, p = 0.056).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study examining genetic variants and their effects in symptomatic ICAD. Variant alleles of CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *8) were associated with lower odds of the primary and secondary composite endpoints. However, the direction of the association was opposite of what is expected based on this SNP. This may reflect an incomplete understanding of this genetic variation and its effect in symptomatic ICAD and warrants further investigations.