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Florian Gessler, Markus Bruder, Stephan Duetzmann, Stephanie Tritt, Joshua D. Bernstock, Volker Seifert and Christian Senft


Neurosurgical intervention may increase the risk of developing cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT). The clinical management of CVT in postoperative patients remains unclear. This retrospective study explores the disease occurrence, associated risk factors, and outcomes in patients with tumors who developed CVT after craniotomy.


A retrospective analysis and review of patient records in those who had undergone cranial tumor removal within the authors' neurosurgical department was performed. In so doing, the authors identified a cohort of patients who developed CVT postoperatively. The study included patients who presented to the department between January 2004 and December 2013.


Of 2286 patients with intracranial lesions who underwent craniotomy, 35 (1.5%) went on to develop CVT. The authors identified the semisitting position (OR 7.55, 95% CI 3.73–15.31, p < 0.001); intraoperative sinus injury (OR 1.5, 95% CI 3.57–15.76, p < 0.001); and known CVT risk factors (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.28–21.39, p < 0.001) as predictors of CVT development. Of note, 19 patients (54.3%) had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–1), whereas 9 patients (25.7%) had suffered dependency or death (modified Rankin Scale Score 4–6) at last follow-up. Intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 21.27, 95% CI 1.59–285.01, p = 0.02) and delayed delivery of an intermediate dose of low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulation (OR 24.12, 95% CI 2.08–280.13, p = 0.01) were associated with unfavorable outcomes.


Only a minority of patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor removal develop CVT, and the majority of those who do develop CVT recover well. Early administration of an intermediate dose of low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulation might be considered once CVT is diagnosed.

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Joshua D. Bernstock, James H. Mooney, Adeel Ilyas, Gustavo Chagoya, Dagoberto Estevez-Ordonez, Ahmed Ibrahim and Ichiro Nakano

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite maximal safe resection followed by chemo- and radiotherapy. GBMs contain self-renewing, tumorigenic glioma stem cells that contribute to tumor initiation, heterogeneity, therapeutic resistance, and recurrence. Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of GBMs is also a major contributing factor to poor clinical outcomes associated with these high-grade glial tumors. Herein, the authors summarize recent discoveries and advances in the molecular and phenotypic characterization of GBMs with particular focus on ITH. In so doing, they attempt to highlight recent advances in molecular signatures/properties and metabolic alterations in an effort to clarify translational implications that may ultimately improve clinical outcomes.