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Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Kenneth D. Candido, Ramsin M. Benyamin and Joshua A. Hirsch

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Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Sairam Atluri, Alan David Kaye and Joshua A. Hirsch

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Philip M. Meyers, Randall T. Higashida, Cameron G. McDougall, M. Shazam Hussein, Joshua A. Hirsch and Peter A. Rasmussen

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Alessandro Cianfoni, Daniela Distefano, Pietro Scarone, Gianfranco A. Pesce, Vittoria Espeli, Luigi La Barbera, Tomaso Villa, Michael Reinert, Giuseppe Bonaldi and Joshua A. Hirsch

OBJECTIVE

Severe lytic cancerous lesions of the spine are associated with significant morbidity and treatment challenges. Stabilization and restoration of the axial load capability of the vertebral body (VB) are important to prevent or arrest vertebral collapse. Percutaneous stent screw–assisted internal fixation (SAIF), which anchors a VB stent/cement complex with pedicular screws to the posterior vertebral elements, is a minimally invasive, image-guided, 360° internal fixation technique that can be utilized in this patient cohort. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and stabilization efficacy of VB reconstruction via the SAIF technique in a cohort of patients with extensive lytic vertebral lesions, who were considered to have an unstable or potentially unstable spine according to the Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS).

METHODS

This study was a retrospective assessment of a prospectively maintained database of a consecutive series of patients with neoplastic extensive extracompartmental osteolysis (Tomita type 4–6) of the VB treated with the SAIF technique. VB reconstruction was assessed on postprocedure plain radiographs and CT by two independent raters. Technical and clinical complications were recorded. Clinical and imaging follow-ups were assessed.

RESULTS

Thirty-five patients with extensive osteolytic metastatic lesions of the VB underwent 36 SAIF procedures. SAIF was performed as a stand-alone procedure in 31/36 cases and was associated with posterior surgical fixation in 5/36 (4/5 with decompressive laminectomy). In 1 case an epidural cement leak required surgical decompression. VB reconstruction was categorized as satisfactory (excellent or good rating) by the two raters in 34/36 cases (94.5%) with an interrater reliability of 94.4% (Cohen’s kappa of 0.8). Follow-up, ranging from 1 to 30 months, was available for 30/36 levels. Long-term follow-up (6–30 months, mean 11.5 months) was available for 16/36 levels. Stability during follow-up was noted in 29/30 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

SAIF provides 360° nonfusion internal fixation that stabilizes the VB in patients with extensive lytic lesions that would otherwise be challenging to treat.

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Christopher J. Stapleton, Thabele M. Leslie-Mazwi, Collin M. Torok, Reza Hakimelahi, Joshua A. Hirsch, Albert J. Yoo, James D. Rabinov and Aman B. Patel

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation arteries is superior to standard medical therapy. Stentriever thrombectomy with or without aspiration assistance was the predominant technique used in the 5 randomized controlled trials that demonstrated the superiority of endovascular thrombectomy. Other studies have highlighted the efficacy of a direct aspiration first-pass technique (ADAPT).

METHODS

To compare the angiographic and clinical outcomes of ADAPT versus stentriever thrombectomy in patients with emergent large vessel occlusions (ELVO) of the anterior intracranial circulation, the records of 134 patients who were treated between June 2012 and October 2015 were reviewed.

RESULTS

Within this cohort, 117 patients were eligible for evaluation. ADAPT was used in 47 patients, 20 (42.5%) of whom required rescue stentriever thrombectomy, and primary stentriever thrombectomy was performed in 70 patients. Patients in the ADAPT group were slightly younger than those in the stentriever group (63.5 vs 69.4 years; p = 0.04); however, there were no differences in the other baseline clinical or radiographic factors. Procedural time (54.0 vs 77.1 minutes; p < 0.01) and time to a Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale score of 2b/3 recanalization (294.3 vs 346.7 minutes; p < 0.01) were significantly lower in patients undergoing ADAPT versus stentriever thrombectomy. The rates of TICI 2b/3 recanalization were similar between the ADAPT and stentriever groups (82.9% vs 71.4%; p = 0.19). There were no differences in the rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or procedural complications. The rates of good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–2) at 90 days were similar between the ADAPT and stentriever groups (48.9% vs 41.4%; p = 0.45), even when accounting for the subset of patients in the ADAPT group who required rescue stentriever thrombectomy.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study demonstrates that ADAPT and primary stentriever thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke due to ELVO are equivalent with respect to the rates of TICI 2b/3 recanalization and 90-day mRS scores. Given the reduced procedural time and time to TICI 2b/3 recanalization with similar functional outcomes, an initial attempt at recanalization with ADAPT may be warranted prior to stentriever thrombectomy.

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Benjamin Pulli, Paul H. Chapman, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Aman B. Patel, Christopher J. Stapleton, Thabele M. Leslie-Mazwi, Joshua A. Hirsch, Bob S. Carter and James D. Rabinov

OBJECTIVE

Curative treatment of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains controversial after the only randomized controlled trial, A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA), was halted prematurely because interim analysis revealed superiority of the medical management group. In contrast, meta-analyses of retrospective cohorts suggest that intervention is much safer than was found in ARUBA.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 318 consecutive adult patients with brain AVMs treated at their institution with embolization, surgery, and/or proton beam radiosurgery. Analysis was performed in 142 ARUBA-eligible patients (baseline modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–1, no history of hemorrhage), and results were compared to primary and secondary outcomes from ARUBA, as well as to natural history cohorts.

RESULTS

The annualized stroke rate (hemorrhagic or ischemic) in this cohort was 1.8%, 4.9% in the first 12 months and 0.8% after the first 12 months, which was lower than in natural history studies and the ARUBA medical management arm (p = 0.001). The primary ARUBA endpoint of symptomatic stroke was reached in 13 patients (9.2%), which compares favorably to the ARUBA intervention arm (39.6%, p = 0.0001) and is similar to the ARUBA medical management arm (9.2%, p = 1.0). The secondary ARUBA endpoint (mRS score ≥ 2 at 5 years of follow-up) was reached in 14.3% of patients, compared to 40.5% in the ARUBA intervention arm (p = 0.002) and 16.7% in the ARUBA medical management arm (p = 0.6).

CONCLUSIONS

This multimodal approach to the selection and treatment of patients with brain AVMs yields good clinical outcomes with key safety endpoints (stroke, death, and mRS score 0–1) better than the ARUBA intervention arm and similar to the ARUBA medical arm at 5 years of follow-up. Results compare favorably to natural history cohorts at longer follow-up times. This suggests that tertiary care centers with integrated programs, expertise in patient selection, and individualized treatment approaches may allow for better clinical outcomes than reported in ARUBA. It supports current registry studies and merits consideration of future randomized controlled trials in patients with brain AVMs.

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Philip M. Meyers, H. Christian Schumacher, Michael J. Alexander, Colin P. Derdeyn, Anthony J. Furlan, Randall T. Higashida, Christopher J. Moran, Robert W. Tarr, Donald V. Heck, Joshua A. Hirsch, Mary E. Jensen, Italo Linfante, Cameron G. McDougall, Gary M. Nesbit, Peter A. Rasmussen, Thomas A. Tomsick, Lawrence R. Wechsler, John A. Wilson and Osama O. Zaidat

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA, Canada, Europe, and Japan. According to the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, there are now 750,000 new strokes that occur each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths, or 1 of every 16 deaths, per year in the USA alone. Endovascular therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke is an area of intense investigation. The American Stroke Association has given a qualified endorsement of intraarterial thrombolysis in selected patients. Intraarterial thrombolysis has been studied in two randomized trials and numerous case series. Although two devices have been granted FDA approval with an indication for mechanical stroke thrombectomy, none of these thrombectomy devices has demonstrated efficacy for the improvement of patient outcomes. The purpose of the present document is to define what constitutes adequate training to perform neuroendovascular procedures in patients with acute ischemic stroke and what performance standards should be adopted to assess outcomes. These guidelines have been written and approved by multiple neuroscience societies which historically have been directly involved in the medical, surgical and endovascular care of patients with acute stroke. The participating member organizations of the Neurovascular Coalition involved in the writing and endorsement of this document are the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons Cerebrovascular Section, and the Society of Vascular & Interventional Neurology.