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Alan Diamond, Christopher Kenney, Michael Almaguer and Joseph Jankovic

✓The authors present a unique case of hyperhidrosis as a side effect of a misplaced deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode near the ventrointermedius (Vim) nucleus in a patient with essential tremor. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed electrode placement in the left anterior thalamus traversing the hypothalamus. High-frequency electrical stimulation possibly resulted in unilateral activation of the efferent sympathetic pathways in the zona incerta. Although a rare complication, hypothalamic dysfunction may occur as a stimulation-related side effect of Vim-DBS.

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J. Michael Desaloms, Joachim K. Krauss, Eugene C. Lai, Joseph Jankovic and Robert G. Grossman

Object. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of mild or moderate degrees of degenerative or ischemic encephalopathy on predicting clinical outcome following unilateral posteroventral medial pallidotomy for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods. Thirty-five patients with PD were studied prospectively. The presence and degree of cortical atrophy, ventriculomegaly, deep white matter lesions (DWML), periventricular lucencies (PVL), and the presence of lacunes and status cribriformis (multiple and bilateral enlarged Virchow—Robin spaces) were determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before the patients underwent stereotactic pallidotomy performed according to a standard protocol. Clinical outcome was measured using a standard battery of tests including application of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The preoperative MR imaging features were correlated with UPDRS subscores such as motor “off” score, the activities of daily living (ADL) off score, the off subscore for bradykinesia, the percentage of “on” time dyskinesias, and a global outcome rating. The MR findings were also correlated with the occurrence of side effects. Global outcome was rated as markedly improved in 22 patients (63%) and as moderately improved in 12 patients (34%) 6 months postoperatively. At the 1-year follow-up examination, global outcome in 31 patients was rated as markedly improved in 14 patients (45%), as moderately improved in another 14 (45%), as slightly improved in two (6%), and as worse in one patient (3%). The mean UPDRS motor off score changed from 58.7 preoperatively to 33.2 at 6 months and 33.4 at 1 year (p < 0.0001), the ADL off score from 31.8 to 18.2 at 6 months and 18.6 at 1 year (p < 0.0001), the off score from contralateral bradykinesia from 11.6 to 5.6 at 6 months and 4.1 at 1 year (p < 0.0001), and the percentage of awake time with dyskinesias from 37.4 to 17.4% at 6 months and 21.1% at 1 year (p < 0.0001). The presence of mild or moderate degrees of cortical atrophy, PVL, and DWML had no effect on clinical outcome. Patients with status cribriformis and those with lacunes tended to show comparatively less improvement in the UPDRS ADL off score (p = 0.014 and p = 0.016, respectively) at 6 months. This tendency was also present in patients with status cribriformis 1 year postoperatively (p = 0.046). Patients with both status cribriformis and lacunes had a higher incidence of transient altered mental status immediately postoperatively (p = 0.05).

Conclusions. Mild-to-moderate degrees of cortical atrophy, ventriculomegaly, and ischemic encephalopathy do not predispose patients to less favorable outcomes following unilateral pallidotomy. Patients with both status cribriformis and lacunes have a higher risk of transient side effects; however, with regard to clinical outcome, these patients should not be denied surgical treatment.

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Christopher Kenney, Richard Simpson, Christine Hunter, William Ondo, Michael Almaguer, Anthony Davidson and Joseph Jankovic

Object

The object of this study was to assess the long-term safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a large population of patients with a variety of movement disorders.

Methods

All patients treated with DBS at the authors' center between 1995 and 2005 were assessed for intraoperative, perioperative, and long-term adverse events (AEs).

A total of 319 patients underwent DBS device implantation. Of these 319, 182 suffered from medically refractory Parkinson disease; the other patients had essential tremor (112 patients), dystonia (19 patients), and other hyperkinetic movement disorders (six patients). Intraoperative AEs were rare and included vasovagal response in eight patients (2.5%), syncope in four (1.2%), severe cough in three (0.9%), transient ischemic attack in one (0.3%), arrhythmia in one (0.3%), and confusion in one (0.3%). Perioperative AEs included headache in 48 patients (15.0%), confusion in 16 (5.0%), and hallucinations in nine (2.8%). Serious intraoperative/perioperative AEs included isolated seizure in four patients (1.2%), intracerebral hemorrhage in two patients (0.6%), intraventricular hemorrhage in two patients (0.6%), and a large subdural hematoma in one patient (0.3%). Persistent long-term complications of DBS surgery included dysarthria (4.0%), worsening gait (3.8%), cognitive dysfunction (4.0%), and infection (4.4%). Revisions were completed in 25 patients (7.8%) for the following reasons: loss of effect, lack of efficacy, infection, lead fracture, and lead migration. Hardware-related complications included 12 lead fractuxres and 10 lead migrations.

Conclusions

The authors conclude that in their 10-year experience, DBS has proven to be safe for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders.

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Joachim K. Krauss, J. Michael Desaloms, Eugene C. Lai, David E. King, Joseph Jankovic and Robert G. Grossman

The authors report the postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in 36 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who underwent unilateral microelectrode-guided posteroventral pallidotomy. The lesions were placed within 1 mm of the ventral border of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) to include pallidothalamic outflow pathways. Sequential MR studies were obtained within 1 to 3 days postoperatively and at 6-month follow-up examination. Thirty-four (94%) of the 36 patients enjoyed sustained moderate or marked improvement of their parkinsonian symptoms 6 months postoperatively. Transient side effects occurred in five patients (14%), but there were no persistent complications. The pallidal radiofrequency lesions were prolate spheroid-shaped and were composed of three concentric zones in the early postoperative studies. The mean volume of the middle zone, corresponding to the area of hemorrhagic coagulation necrosis, was 44.4 +/- 17.6 mm3; the mean lesion volume as defined by the outer zone, corresponding to perilesional edema, was 262.2 +/− 111.6 mm3. Additional edema spreading to the internal capsule was noted in 32 of 34 cases and to the optic tract in 11 of 34 cases. In two patients small ischemic infarctions involving the corona radiata were found, and in one a venous infarction was detected. Ischemic infarction resulted in mild transient Broca's aphasia in one patient, but there was no detectable neurological deficit in the other two. The mean volume of late-phase (6 months) lesions was 22 +/− 28.8 mm3. In three patients no lesion was identified despite sustained clinical improvement. The lesion was located in the posteroventral GPi in all cases except in one patient in whom it was confined to the GP externus (GPe). This 49-year-old woman did not experience sustained benefit. The authors found no consistent correlations between lesion size and location and clinical outcome as measured by a global outcome score, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor, activities of daily living, and bradykinesia “off” scores or rating of dyskinesias. Lesioning of pallidal and subpallidal pathways may contribute to the sustained clinical benefit in this series. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis showed that intraoperative microelectrode recording facilitated accurate placement of the lesion in this critical area.

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Joachim K. Krauss, J. Michael Desaloms, Eugene C. Lai, David E. King, Joseph Jankovic and Robert G. Grossman

✓ The authors report the postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in 36 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who underwent unilateral microelectrode-guided posteroventral pallidotomy. The lesions were placed within 1 mm of the ventral border of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) to include pallidothalamic outflow pathways. Sequential MR studies were obtained within 1 to 3 days postoperatively and at 6-month follow-up examination. Thirty-four (94%) of the 36 patients enjoyed sustained moderate or marked improvement of their parkinsonian symptoms 6 months postoperatively. Transient side effects occurred in five patients (14%), but there were no persistent complications. The pallidal radiofrequency lesions were prolate spheroid shaped and were composed of three concentric zones in the early postoperative studies. The mean volume of the middle zone, corresponding to the area of hemorrhagic coagulation necrosis, was 44.4 ± 17.6 mm3; the mean lesion volume as defined by the outer zone, corresponding to perilesional edema, was 262.2 ± 111.6 mm3. Additional edema spreading to the internal capsule was noted in 32 of 34 cases and to the optic tract in 11 of 34 cases. In two patients small ischemic infarctions involving the corona radiata were found, and in one a venous infarction was detected. Ischemic infarction resulted in mild transient Broca's aphasia in one patient, but there was no detectable neurological deficit in the other two. The mean volume of late-phase (6 months) lesions was 22 ± 28.8 mm3. In three patients no lesion was identified despite sustained clinical improvement. The lesion was located in the posteroventral GPi in all cases except in one patient in whom it was confined to the GP externus (GPe). This 49-year-old woman did not experience sustained benefit. The authors found no consistent correlations between lesion size and location and clinical outcome as measured by a global outcome score, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor, activities of daily living, and bradykinesia “off” scores or rating of dyskinesias. Lesioning of pallidal and subpallidal pathways may contribute to the sustained clinical benefit in this series. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis showed that intraoperative microelectrode recording facilitated accurate placement of the lesion in this critical area.

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Jerzy Slowinski, Ryan J. Uitti, John D. Putzke and Robert E. Wharen Jr.

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Rajesh Pahwa, Kelly E. Lyons, Steven B. Wilkinson, Richard K. Simpson Jr., William G. Ondo, Daniel Tarsy, Thorkild Norregaard, Jean P. Hubble, Donald A. Smith, Robert A. Hauser and Joseph Jankovic

Object

The effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD) have been well documented, but there is a paucity of long-term data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longterm safety and efficacy of DBS of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus for PD and ET.

Methods

Thirty-eight of 45 patients enrolled at five sites completed a 5-year follow-up study. There were 26 patients with ET and 19 with PD undergoing 29 unilateral (18 ET/11 PD) and 16 bilateral (eight ET/eight PD) procedures. Patients with ET were evaluated using the Tremor Rating Scale, and patients with PD were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. The mean age of patients with ET was 70.2 years and 66.3 years in patients with PD. Unilaterally implanted patients with ET had a 75% improvement of the targeted hand tremor; those with bilateral implants had a 65% improvement in the left hand and 86% in the right compared with baseline. Parkinsonian patients with unilateral implants had an 85% improvement in the targeted hand tremor and those with bilateral implants had a 100% improvement in the left hand and 90% improvement in the right. Common DBS-related adverse events in patients receiving unilateral implants were paresthesia (45%) and pain (41%), and in patients receiving implants bilaterally dysarthria (75%) and balance difficulties (56%) occurred. Device-related surgical revisions other than IPG replacements occurred in 12 (27%) of the 45 patients.

Conclusions

Thalamic stimulation is safe and effective for the long-term management of essential and parkinsonian tremors. Bilateral stimulation can cause dysarthria and incoordination and should be used cautiously.