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Justin Schwarz, Joseph A. Carnevale, Jacob L. Goldberg, Alexander D. Ramos, Thomas W. Link, and Jared Knopman

OBJECTIVE

Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a common and challenging pathology to treat due to both the historically high recurrence rate following surgical evacuation and the medical comorbidities inherent in the aging patient population that it primarily affects. Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization has shown promise in the treatment of cSDHs, most convincingly to avoid surgical evacuation in relatively asymptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients requiring surgical evacuation may also benefit from perioperative MMA embolization to prevent cSDH recurrence. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of perioperative MMA embolization for symptomatic cSDH requiring surgical evacuation and to assess if there is a decrease in the cSDH recurrence rate compared to historical recurrence rates following surgical evacuation alone.

METHODS

Symptomatic cSDHs were evacuated using a subdural evacuating port system (SEPS) with 5-mm twist-drill craniostomy in an intensive care unit or by performing a craniotomy in the operating room, using either a small (silver dollar, < 4 cm) or large (≥ 4 cm) craniotomy. MMA embolization was performed perioperatively using angiography, selective catheterization of the MMA, and infusion of polyvinyl particles. Outcomes were assessed clinically and radiographically with interval head CT imaging.

RESULTS

There were 44 symptomatic cSDHs in 41 patients, with 3 patients presenting with bilateral symptomatic cSDH. All cSDHs were evacuated using an SEPS (n = 18), a silver-dollar craniotomy (n = 16), or a large craniotomy (n = 10). Prophylactic MMA embolization was performed successfully in all cSDHs soon after surgical evacuation. There were no deaths and no procedural complications. There was an overall reduction of greater than 50% or resolution of cSDH in 40/44 (90.9%) cases, regardless of the evacuation procedure used. Of the 44 prophylactic cases, there were 2 (4.5%) cases of cSDH recurrence that required repeat surgical evacuation at the 1-year follow-up. These 2 cSDHs were initially evacuated using an SEPS and subsequently required a craniotomy, thereby representing an overall 4.5% recurrence rate of treated cSDH requiring repeat evacuation. Most notably, of the 26 patients who underwent surgical evacuation with a craniotomy followed by MMA embolization, none had cSDH recurrence requiring repeat intervention.

CONCLUSIONS

Perioperative prophylactic MMA embolization in the setting of surgical evacuation, via either craniotomy or SEPS, may help to lower the recurrence rate of cSDH.

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Joseph A. Carnevale, Christopher S. Babu, Jacob L. Goldberg, Reginald Fong, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Visual deterioration after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for sellar and parasellar masses is a rare but serious complication caused by either compressive or ischemic mechanisms. Timely diagnosis and intervention may restore vision if instituted appropriately. The associated risk factors and their relation to the success of intervention are not well understood.

METHODS

The authors examined a series of 1200 consecutive EETS cases performed by the senior author at Weill Cornell/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital from 2010 to 2020. Cases with postoperative visual deterioration were identified. Pre- and postoperative clinical data, mechanism of visual decline, latency to intervention, and long-term visual outcome were retrospectively collected and analyzed with appropriate statistical methods.

RESULTS

Twenty-one patients (1.75%) complained of early postoperative visual deterioration. The most common pathology associated with postoperative visual loss was craniopharyngioma (7.69%), followed by meningioma (5.43%) and then pituitary adenoma (1.94%). Timely intervention restored vision in 81% of patients for a 0.33% rate of permanent visual deterioration. Average time to visual deterioration was 28.8 hours, and over 70% of patients experienced vision loss within the first 13 hours. Compressive etiology (n = 11), consisting of either hematoma (n = 8) or graft displacement (n = 3), occurred 7.3 hours and 70.3 hours after surgery, respectively, and was more common in adenomas. Acute postoperative visual deterioration was more common in firm closures (4.78%) compared with soft closures (1.03%; p = 0.0006). Ischemic etiology (n = 10) occurred 10.3 hours after surgery and was more common with craniopharyngiomas and meningiomas (p = 0.08). Sixteen patients (76.2%) underwent early reoperation to explore and decompress the optic apparatus. Vision was restored to baseline after reoperation in all 11 compressive cases, whereas 6/10 ischemic cases improved with supplemental oxygen and hypervolemic hypertensive therapy (p = 0.02). Fluid expansion from 8 to 16 hours (p = 0.034) and systolic blood pressure elevation from 32 to 48 hours (p = 0.05) after surgery were significantly higher in those ischemic patients who recovered some vision compared with those with persistent visual deficits.

CONCLUSIONS

Visual deterioration after EETS is a rare event but can be effectively treated if acted upon appropriately and in a timely fashion. Compressive etiology is reversible with early reoperation. Ischemic etiology can be successfully treated in roughly half of cases with supplemental oxygen and hypertensive hypervolemic therapy but may result in permanent visual deterioration if not instituted appropriately or if delayed with unnecessary exploratory surgery.

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Jacob L. Goldberg, Ibrahim Hussain, Joseph A. Carnevale, Alexandra Giantini-Larsen, Ori Barzilai, and Mark H. Bilsky

OBJECTIVE

Paraspinal ganglioneuromas are rare tumors that arise from neural crest tissue and can cause morbidity via compression of adjacent organs and neurovascular structures. The authors investigated a case series of these tumors treated at their institution to determine clinical outcomes following resection.

METHODS

A retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of consecutive, pathology-confirmed, surgically treated paraspinal ganglioneuromas from 2001 to 2019 was performed at a tertiary cancer center.

RESULTS

Fifteen cases of paraspinal ganglioneuroma were identified: 47% were female and the median age at the time of surgery was 30 years (range 10–67 years). Resected tumors included 9 thoracic, 1 lumbar, and 5 sacral, with an average maximum tumor dimension of 6.8 cm (range 1–13.5 cm). Two patients had treated neuroblastomas that matured into ganglioneuromas. One patient had a secretory tumor causing systemic symptoms. Surgical approaches were anterior (n = 11), posterior (n = 2), or combined (n = 2). Seven (47%) and 5 (33%) patients underwent gross-total resection (GTR) or subtotal resection with minimal residual tumor, respectively. The complication rate was 20%, with no permanent neurological deficits or deaths. No patient had evidence of tumor recurrence or progression after a median follow-up of 68 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical approaches and extent of resection for paraspinal ganglioneuromas must be heavily weighed against the advantages of aggressive debulking and decompression given the complication risk of these procedures. GTR can be curative, but even patients without complete tumor removal can show evidence of excellent long-term local control and clinical outcomes.

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Joseph A. Carnevale, David J. Segar, Andrew Y. Powers, Meghal Shah, Cody Doberstein, Benjamin Drapcho, John F. Morrison, John R. Williams, Scott Collins, Kristina Monteiro, and Wael F. Asaad

OBJECTIVE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of neurological morbidity and mortality. Each year, more than 1.7 million patients present to the emergency department with TBI. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of traumatic cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage (tIPH), to develop subclassifications of these injuries that relate to prognosis, and to provide a more comprehensive assessment of hemorrhagic progression contusion (HPC) by analyzing the rate at which tIPH “blossom” (i.e., expansion), depending on a variety of intrinsic and modifiable factors.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, 726 patients (age range 0–100 years) were admitted to a level 1 trauma center with tIPH during an 8-year period (2005–2013). Of these patients, 491 underwent both admission and follow-up head CT (HCT) within 72 hours. The change in tIPH volume over time, the expansion rate, was recorded for all 491 patients. Effects of prehospital and in-hospital variables were examined using ordinal response logistic regression analyses. These variables were further examined using multivariate linear regression analysis to accurately predict the extent to which a hemorrhage will progress.

RESULTS

Of the 491 (67.6%) patients who underwent both admission and follow-up HCT, 368 (74.9%) patients experienced HPC. These hemorrhages expanded on average by 61.6% (4.76 ml) with an average expansion rate of 0.71 ml per hour. On univariate analysis, certain patient characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05) related to HPC, including age (> 60 years), admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, blood alcohol level, international normalized ratio, absolute platelet count, transfusion of platelets, concomitant anticoagulation and antiplatelet medication, the initial tIPH volume on admission HCT, and ventriculostomy. Increased expansion rate was significantly associated with patient disposition to hospice or death (p < 0.001). To determine which factors most accurately predict overall patient disposition, an ordinal-response logistic regression identified systolic blood pressure, Injury Severity Score, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, follow-up scan volume, transfusion of platelets, and ventriculostomy as predictors of patient discharge disposition following tIPH. A multivariate logistic regression identified several prehospital and in-hospital variables (age, Injury Severity Score, blood alcohol level, initial scan volume, concomitant epidural hematoma, presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, transfusion of platelets, and ventriculostomy) that predicted the volumetric expansion of tIPH. Among these variables, the admission tIPH volume by HCT proved to be the factor most predictive of HPC.

CONCLUSIONS

Several factors contribute to the rate at which traumatic cerebral contusions blossom in the acute posttraumatic period. Identifying the intrinsic and modifiable aspects of cerebral contusions can help predict the rate of expansion and highlight potential therapeutic interventions to improve TBI-associated morbidity and mortality.

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Joseph A. Carnevale, Brandon S. Imber, Graham M. Winston, Jacob L. Goldberg, Ase Ballangrud, Cameron W. Brennan, Kathryn Beal, Viviane Tabar, and Nelson S. Moss

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic biopsy is increasingly performed on brain metastases (BrMs) as improving cancer outcomes drive aggressive multimodality treatment, including laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT). However, the tract recurrence (TR) risk is poorly defined in an era defined by focused-irradiation paradigms. As such, the authors aimed to define indications and adjuvant therapies for this procedure and evaluate the BrM-biopsy TR rate.

METHODS

In a single-center retrospective review, the authors identified stereotactic BrM biopsies performed from 2002 to 2020. Surgical indications, radiographic characteristics, stereotactic planning, dosimetry, pre- and postoperative CNS-directed and systemic treatments, and clinical courses were collected. Recurrence was evaluated using RANO-BM (Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases) criteria.

RESULTS

In total, 499 patients underwent stereotactic intracranial biopsy for any diagnosis, of whom 25 patients (5.0%) underwent biopsy for pathologically confirmed viable BrM, a proportion that increased over the time period studied. Twelve of the 25 BrM patients had ≥ 3 months of radiographic follow-up, of whom 6 patients (50%) developed new metastatic growth along the tract at a median of 5.0 months post-biopsy (range 2.3–17.1 months). All of the TR cases had undergone pre- or early post-biopsy stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and 3 had also undergone LITT at the time of initial biopsy. TRs were treated with resection, reirradiation, or observation/systemic therapy.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study the authors identified a nontrivial, higher than previously described rate of BrM-biopsy tract recurrence, which often required additional surgery or radiation and justified close radiographic surveillance. As BrMs are commonly treated with SRS limited to enhancing tumor margins, consideration should be made, in cases lacking CNS-active systemic treatments, to include biopsy tracts in adjuvant radiation plans where feasible.