Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of stroke in young adults. Multiple sCAD is a rarer, more poorly understood presentation of sCAD that has been increasingly attributed to cervical trauma such as spinal manipulation or genetic polymorphisms in extracellular matrix components. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old, otherwise healthy woman, who over the course of 2 weeks developed progressive, hemodynamically significant, bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections. Collateral response involved extensive external carotid artery–internal carotid artery anastomoses via the ophthalmic artery, which were instrumental in maintaining perfusion because circle of Willis and leptomeningeal anastomotic responses were hampered by the dissection burden in the corresponding collateral vessels. Endovascular intervention by placement of Pipeline embolization devices and Atlas stents in bilateral internal carotid arteries was successfully performed. No syndromic or systemic etiology was discovered during a thorough workup.
Danielle Golub, Lizbeth Hu, Siddhant Dogra, Jose Torres and Maksim Shapiro
Claudio Piqueras, Juan F. Martínez-Lage, María José Almagro, Javier Ros De San Pedro, Pedro Torres Tortosa and Agueda Herrera
✓ The authors report the case of a 10-year-old boy who sustained an injury to the cauda equina as a result of the accidental penetration of a wooden pencil into the spinal canal. After neuroimaging evaluation to exclude visceral and vascular lesions, the foreign body was removed and the wound was repaired. This is the first report of a cauda equina injury caused by a pencil.
Gustavo Rassier Isolan, Marino Muxfeldt Bianchin, José Augusto Bragatti, Carolina Torres and Gilberto Schwartsmann
Hallucinations can be auditory, visual, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory, and can be caused by psychiatric (such as schizophrenia and depression), neurological (such as cerebrovascular accidents, neoplasia, and infection), or endocrine and metabolic disorders. Musical hallucinations related to neurological disorders are rare. The authors present a case of a patient with a right insular glioma who developed transient musical hallucinations after microsurgical resection of the tumor.
Martin Sánchez-Aguilar, J. Humberto Tapia-Pérez, José Juan Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Viñas-Ríos, Patricia Martínez-Pérez, Esperanza de la Cruz-Mendoza, Martin Sánchez-Reyna, Jaime Gerardo Torres-Corzo and Antonio Gordillo-Moscoso
The favorable effect of statin treatment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown in animal studies and is probably true in humans as well. The objective of this study was to determine whether acute statin treatment following TBI could reduce inflammatory cytokines and improve functional outcomes in humans.
The authors performed a double-blind randomized clinical trial in patients with moderate to severe TBI. Exclusion criteria were as follows: prior severe disability; use of modifiers of statin metabolism; multisystem trauma; prior use of mannitol, barbiturates, corticosteroids, or calcium channel blockers; isolated brainstem lesions; allergy to statins; previous hepatopathy or myopathy; previous treatment at another clinic; and pregnancy. Patients were randomly selected to receive 20 mg of rosuvastatin or placebo for 10 days. The main goal was to determine the effect of rosuvastatin on plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor–α, interleukin (IL)–1β, IL-6, and IL-10 after 72 hours of TBI. Amnesia, disorientation, and disability were assessed 3 and 6 months after TBI.
Thirty-six patients were analyzed according to intention-to-treat analysis; 19 patients received rosuvastatin and 17 received placebo. The best-fit mixed model showed a significant effect of rosuvastatin on the reduction of tumor necrosis factor–α levels (p = 0.004). Rosuvastatin treatment did not appear to affect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. The treatment was associated with a reduction in disability scores (p = 0.03), indicating a favorable functional outcome. Life-threatening adverse effects were not observed.
The authors' data suggest that statins may induce an antiinflammatory effect and may promote recovery after TBI. The role of statins in TBI therapy should be confirmed in larger clinical trials. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00990028.
Margarida Julià-Sapé, Dionisio Acosta, Carles Majós, Àngel Moreno-Torres, Pieter Wesseling, Juan José Acebes, John R. Griffiths and Carles Arús
The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of routine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies in the classification of brain tumors in terms of both cell type and grade of malignancy.
The authors retrospectively assessed the correlation between neuroimaging classifications and histopathological diagnoses by using multicenter database records from 393 patients with brain tumors. An ontology was devised to establish diagnostic agreement. Each tumor category was compared with the corresponding histopathological diagnoses by dichotomization. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs, respectively), and the Wilson 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each were calculated.
In routine reporting of MR imaging examinations, tumor types and grades were classified with a high specificity (85.2–100%); sensitivity varied, depending on the tumor type and grade, alone or in combination. The recognition of broad diagnostic categories (neuroepithelial or meningeal lesions) was highly sensitive, whereas when both detailed type and grade were considered, sensitivity diverged, being highest in low-grade meningioma (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 96.2–100.0%) and lowest in high-grade meningioma (sensitivity 0.0%, 95% CI 0.0–65.8%) and low-grade oligodendroglioma (sensitivity 15%, 95% CI 5.2–36.0%). In neuroepithelial tumors, sensitivity was inversely related to the precision in reporting of grade and cellular origin; “glioma” was a frequent neuroimaging classification associated with higher sensitivity in the corresponding category. The PPVs varied among categories, in general being greater than their prevalence in this dataset. The NPV was high in all categories (69.8–100%).
The PPVs and NPVs provided in this study may be used as estimates of posttest probabilities of diagnostic accuracy using MR imaging. This study targets the need for noninvasively increasing sensitivity in categorizing most brain tumor types while retaining high specificity, especially in the differentiation of high- and low-grade glial tumor classes.
Joseph Haynes, Eytan Raz, Omar Tanweer, Maksim Shapiro, Rogelio Esparza, David Zagzag, Howard A. Riina, Christine Henderson, Kaitlyn Lillemoe, Cen Zhang, Sara Rostanski, Shadi Yaghi, Koto Ishida, Jose Torres, Brian Mac Grory and Erez Nossek
The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web.
A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors’ institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics.
A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors’ institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 ± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 ± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up.
CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.